[VERB+ed] o irregular verbs
• You called Debbie.
• Did you call Debbie?
• You did not call Debbie.
1 Completed Action in the Past
L’acció va començar i acabar en un moment específic del temps (passat). No cal mencionar el moment específic però està clar que fa referència a un moment específic com:
• From 1992 to 1995
• Last night/ last week
• x minutes ago - x months ago – a few days ago – a long time ago
• in 2010
• when I was a child
• at x o’clock
• I saw a play/movie yesterday.
• Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
• Did you have dinner last night?
• He didn't wash his car.
2 Series of Completed Actions
• I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice placeto swim.
3 Duration in Past
Una acció començada i acaba en el passat que va tenir una duració determinada. Acostuma a anar acompañada d’expressions:
for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year,the entire time, etc.
• I lived in Brazil for two years.
• They sat at the beach all day.
• They did not stay at the party the entire time.
• A: How long did you wait forthem?
B: We waited for one hour.
4 Habits in the Past
Per descriure habits que van acabar en el passat. "used to: acostumaba…"
Expresions: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
• I studied French when I was a child.
• He didn't play the piano.
• Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
• They never went to school, theyalways skipped class.
5 Past Facts or Generalizations
• She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
• He didn't like tomatoes before.
• Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
PAST SIMPLE: IMPORTANT When!
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
[has/have + past participle]
• You have seen that movie many times.
• Have you seen that movie many times?
•You have not seen that movie many times.
1 Unspecified Time Before Now
L’acció ha passat en un temps inespecífic abans d’ara. El moment exacte no importa. NO ES POT UTILITZAR amb expressions: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc.
L’UTLITZEM amb expressions: ever, never, once, many times, several times,before, so far, already, yet, etc.
• I think I have met him once before.
• There have been many earthquakes in California.
• Have you read the book yet?
• Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
ALREADY/JUST/YET – important veure la diferència
La idea d’inespecífic pot ser confusa… Com l’utilitzem a la realitat?
1.1 Experience (HAVE- HAS BEEN / HAVE-HAS GONE) – important diferenciarbeen/gone!
"I have the experience of...": he tingut l’experiència de…
“I have never had a certain experience”: mai he tingut una experiència específica
NO s’utilitza per a descriure un fet específic.
• I have been to France. Pot ser he estat un cop o alguns “once, or several times”.
• I have been to France three times. Pots afegir el número de vegades al final de la frase.
• Ihave never been to France.
• I think I have seen that movie before.
• A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
1.2 Change Over Time
Quan parlem d’un canvi que ha passat amb el pas del temps.
• You have grown since the last time I saw you.
• The government has become more interested in arts education.
• My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
Quan hem lograt una cosa. No podem mencionar un temps específic.
• Man has walked on the Moon.
• Our son has learned how to read.
1.4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
Quan no ha passat una acció i estem esperant que passi.
• James has not finished his homework yet.
• Bill has still not arrived.
• The rain hasn't stopped.