Botanic Family: Rosaceas
Subgenus: Amygadalus L
Botanic names: Prunus persica L.
Common names: Melocotonero, Durazno, Pavía, Albérchigo y Prescal.
The peach tree reaches a height of 3 at 5 mts. At the beginning, it has a conic top and later it took an oval shape. This tree has a life cycle of 20 at 50 years. The peach tree has a vertical-grossroot, a thick trunk with a bark that it peels off in films of color ashy an almost smooth. Also it has scattered and divergent branches. The leaves are alternate, serrate, rarely entire, stipulate and conduplicate in bud. The flowers are solitary or fascicle or racemes, sessile or short-stalked, and they open before the leaves. The fruit is drupe dehiscent and it has a pitted or smooth stone. Thebuds are three in each axil.
Characteristic of the flowers
The flower is the specialized reproductive plants organ through fruits and seeds are obtained. The flower is a collection of parts arranged in a shaft known as receptacle. These parts are the sepals, petals, stamens and pistil, the set of sepals is known as the calyx and petals as the corolla. The stamens and pistils are the flowersreproductive structures because they contain tissues such as pollen grains or carpels. The stamen is the male fertile structure that consists of a filament and anther. The gynoecium (pistil) is the female fertile structure that originally comes from foliar structures by which most of the fruits derived.
The gynoecium consists of a stigma, style and ovary. The stigma is the structure where thepollen grains fall to germinate, while the style is the support of the stigma attached to the ovarian; pollen grain germinated on stigma develops a pollen tube which grows through the style to arrive at the female cells . The peach has three styles.
The ovary is the most important structure of a flower, and from it derive the edible fruit and seeds, is located in the basal part of gynoeciumexpanded and contains one or more carpels where the eggs after to be fertilized will give place at the formation of seeds. A peach flower has a single carpel with two eggs.
In the peach fruit each bud produces only one flower, axillar, complete and hermaphrodite, they appear before the leaves. In the peaches are two categories of flowers: large and small. The gamosepalous calyx isdeciduous, colored more or less intense, the corolla is red or purplish, sometimes white, is composed of five petals, alternate with the teeth of the sepals. The stamens are twenty-five to thirty, and are inserted into the edge of the receptacle, which shaped is like a shallow cup. Because the carpel is unique and comes from the bottom of the cup, the ovary in the maturity forms a monospermous drupe.Characteristics of the fruits
The fruit comes from a female fertilized egg located within the ovary.
The ovary of a flower consists of a wall or cell layers surrounding the embryo sac (site of the carpels) known as pericarp and it develops as a fruit. The pericarp tissue forms three different cell layers known as pericarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
The first layer is an outer layercomposed of few cells, it constitute the shell in fruits it come from perigenas and hypogynous flowers ; the sell can be smooth, waxy, glandular, rough and pubescent like the peaches.
The mesocarp is the tissue inside the shell composed of many layers of cells. It can be thick and fleshy as in the peach. The endocarp is the internal tissue of the developing ovary formed by various cell layersthat can be lignified or stone forming a bone like in peaches.
The drupe is the botanical name of the peach. It is spherical with a longitudinal groove more or less marked; it has a glabrous or pubescent skin. The skin could be green or yellow or purplish with carmine spots that are effects of the sun, the climate, land or crop. It has a succulent pulp, white, yellow or red, especially near...