mastercube • aquacube • aquacube concentrate
Low volume inclusion – high quality binding...
Mixing: The objective when mixing formula feeds is to ensure that small quantities contain the same proportion of ingredients as the formula of the bulk mix. The smaller and more uniformly sized the ingredient particles are ground the faster an even distribution will be achieved.Regular testing of mixing times needs to be conducted for individual ration formulations to ensure correct mixing. Under mixing or over-mixing can result in loss of homogeneity. Fat and Oil addition: As a general rule more than 1% added at the mixer stage will result in meal particles coated with fat, which interferes with steam absorption and reduces pelletability. Generally higher levels of oilor fat are achieved by post pellet spraying on exiting the die, or immediately after the cooler. Conditioning (or expanding): This has a major effect on capacity, press output, pellet quality and the life of replaceable parts. The aim of any conditioning process is to: • allow time to utilise the heat and moisture content of the steam. • ensure a thorough mixing and homogeneity of any addedliquids to the meal. The activity in the conditioner helps with pregelatinisation of starches and initiates added enzyme activity to improve digestibility. Conditioning also reduces bacterial counts to improve biosecurity. Using acids further enhances the biocidal activity of conditioners. On leaving the conditioner the meal should be friable and free flowing. Extremes of moisture should be avoidedand allowances made for sources such as: • moisture content of raw materials. • liquid additions such as molasses. • the quality of the steam. The steam needs to be as dry as possible without being superheated to ensure that the required increase in temperature of the meal to achieve the plasticity vital for pelleting. Attention to location of steam traps is essential to ensure good steamquality. Pelleting: By ensuring that a meal is in the best possible state to go to the pellet press it is hoped that good quality pellets will result. However, it is still necessary to check the physical set up is correct. • Select a suitable die for the appropriate pellet size and type. • Check die condition • Adjust roller and plough settings correctly. Die wear or damage will result from too tighta setting. Roller slip and die blockage can result from too loose settings. • Set knives to produce pellets of the correct length and ensure knives are sharp. Cooling: The cooler immediately after pelleting is important to reduce pellet temperature rapidly to preserve the more heat labile ingredients. Cooling also removes surplus moisture to prevent storage moulding. Pellet quality is importantand is governed by a number of factors, as mentioned above. Many may not be optimal from a pelleting viewpoint on grounds of cost and nutritional requirements. A pellet binder may help to overcome some of the issues but will not be a substitute for the art of pellet production.
Pelleting has a number of advantages over mash feed:
• Feed hygiene improvement. The addition of heatdue to steam and pressure reduces the microbiological load, particularly for the non-spore forming bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. • Increases bulk density – less space is occupied in storage and transport. • Avoids suspension of ingredients – the mix remains homogeneous and avoids selective feeding behaviour. • Less waste – dust losses during transportation and feedingare considerably less than with meal. • Administration of medication is easier and more accurate with pelleted feed. • Nutritional improvement – the conditioning of the formulation mix can improve the palatability and digestibility of the feed, resulting in improved performance.
Some of the main factors affecting pellet quality are:
Raw Materials: Raw material choice will be governed by...