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THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 1993, updated 1996)
CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) Bilabial Labiodental Dental Plosive Nasal Trill Tap or Flap Fricative Lateral fricative Approximant Lateralapproximant Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular © 1996 IPA Pharyngeal Glottal

t d µ n r | F B f v T D s Êz S Z ñ L Ã ¨ l

p b m õ

æ ¶ c ï k g q G / = N Ð R Ç § ½ • J x V X å© ? h H Õ ð

j ´

÷ K

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives

Front Close



> ù ! ø ²

Bilabial Dental (Post)alveolar Palatoalveolar Alveolar lateral

º ë ú Ä ì

Bilabial Dental/alveolar Palatal VelarUvular

’ p’ t’ k’ s’

Examples: Bilabial Dental/alveolar Velar Alveolar fricative




IY e P

é è


¬ u ¯ o ¿ O A •



· Voicelesslabial-velar fricative ‚ ó Alveolo-palatal fricatives w Ê Voiced labial-velar approximant È Voiced alveolar lateral flap ç Voiced labial-palatal approximant ê Simultaneous S and x í Voiceless epiglottalfricative Affricates and double articulations ÊÀ ÊVoiced epiglottal fricative can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary. ÊÖ Ê Epiglottal plosive


e ¸ « E{ ä Œ Ï a Ó

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. SUPRASEGMENTALS


kp ts N(

Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.

® Éò


Primary stress Secondary stress Long Half-long Extra-short




9 3 î 7 ¦ ª 2 Ê á + ` 8 ±

eÊ_ e! e@ e~ eÑ Í ›

‰ • ” ™ ž

High Mid Low Extra lowDownstep Upstep

e e$ e% eÞ e& ‹ Ì


n9 d9 Voiced s3 tÊ3 Aspirated tî dî More rounded O7 Less rounded O¦ Advanced uª Retracted e2 Centralized eá Mid-centralized e+ Syllabic n` Non-syllabic e8...
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