VALIDEZ Y CONFIABILIDAD
José Francisco Cortés Sotres*, Clemente Barragán Velásquez**, María de Lourdes Vázquez Cruz***
The study ofintelligence must be approached through a retrospective view allowing it to be defined within the evolution of human thought. Three historical stages may be established: Empirical: it includes theability of a person tu use his/her capacity in order to cope with the challenges of daily life; this is merely empiric and associated with the cultural environment of the group. Psychometric: it was definedat the end of the XIX century. Works like those of Galton, in 1877, who was the creator of the concept of correlation with which one could associate several psychological variables in terms of theindividual differences, are highlighted. Pearson formalized the theory of correlation and permited, therefore, the prediction of psychological variables based on the knowledge of others. In 1904Spearman made a significant contribution to the use of the method of correlation when the theory of the two factors of intelligence, general and specific, was published. Binet developed the concept of IQ andCatell developed the first test of intelligence based on 50 subtests of sensorial capacities. Multiple Intelligences: Guilford, in 1936 and Thurstone in 1946 sustained the existence of severalfactors or components of intelligence, and were first to approach the concept of multiple intelligence. Thorndike sustained that the quantitative measurement of intelligence involved several types ofapproaches, the abstract or verbal, the empirical and the social. At the beginning of the 70’s Gardner sustained the thesis of the existence of a mental structure with multiple intelligence, mentioningseven different types. Intelligence has been conceptualized as an individual’s overall ability to act rationally and successfully. However, it has been noted that a high intelligence quotient (IQ) is by...