• Montesquieu (1689-1755):
Was born at the Château de la Brède in the southwest of France.
Lawyer, philosopher and political thinker.
Lived during the Enlightenment.
Famous forhis articulation of the theory of separation of powers: executive, legislative, and judicial power.
Most important work: the “Persian Letters” and “The Spirit of the Laws”.
• Voltaire(Young Francois Marie) (1694-1778):
Was born in Paris, France.
Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher.
Famous for writing the civil liberties, including freedom of religionand free trade.
He made fun of France’s government and criticize it.
Attracted to the philosophy of John Locke and ideas of mathematician and scientist.
Exiled from France in 1726because of insulting the powerful young nobleman, “Chevalier De Rohan”.
He wrote “Oedipe” while he was in prison.
• Denis Diderot (1713 -1784):
Was born in the eastern Langres, France. Enlightenment philosopher, art critic, and writer.
Famous for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopedia.
His attacks on the political system ofFrance were among the most potent causes of the Revolution.
• Adam Smith (1723 -1790):
Was born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland.
Enlightenment moral philosopher, writer, and economist.Famous for his explanation of how rational self-interest in a free-market economy leads to economic well-being.
His most influential book: “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of theWealth of Nations” (1776).
• John Locke (1632 -1704):
He was born in Somerset, South West England.
Enlightenment philosopher and physician.
Know as the Father of Liberalism.
Hiswritings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries.
Encyclopedia of World Biography. 11/JAN/11....
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