1. Abstraction: This term refers to phonemes which are not real. The phones are real. The phones of the language are real; the phonemes are abstract representations of the realsounds.
2. Acoustic phonetics: is a subfield of phonetics which deals with acoustic aspects of speech sounds.
3. Affricate: An affricate is a type of consonant consisting of a plosivefollowed by a fricative with the same place of articulation: examples are the tʃ and d_ sounds at the beginning and end of the English words ‘church’ tʃ__tʃ, ‘judge’ d__d_ (the first of these isvoiceless, the second voiced).
4. Allomorph: A non-contrastive variant of a morpheme, a subclass of morphemes.
5. Allophones: is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones)used to pronounce a single phoneme. For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language.
6. Allophonic: Nondistinctive, nonfunctional,irrelevant, non-phonemic.
7. Alternate pronunciations: Variations in pronunciations. Allophones are alternative pronunciations of a phoneme.
8. Alveolar: Point of articulation at the gumor alveolar ridge behind the upper front teeth.
9. Alveopalatal: Point of articulation between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
10. Analogous environment: Referring to utterancesthat differ by one feature besides the difference between the two sounds that are being analyzed.
11. Archiphoneme: A phoneme neutralized or environmentally determined with limiteddistribution.
12. Articulator: We can only produce speech sound by moving parts of our body, and this is done by the contraction of muscles. The parts of the mouth and throat area that we move whenspeaking are called articulators.
13. Articulatory features: It refers to the characteristics sounds have, as for example voicing, point of articulation and manner of articulation, etc.
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