Physicians and medical specialties

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Physicians and medical specialties
1. Modern medical care, especially in a hospital, is administered by a whole team of technically trained personnel. At the head of the team (supervising, making decisions, and writing the orders) is the physician.
2. The professional life of a physician is not a dramatic tale of miraculous success and glory, as movies and TV often suggest. It is a rewardingand interesting life, but it is also physically and mentally exhausting, stressful, and full of great responsibility. In most countries, physicians enjoy at least a comfortable living as well as respect. However, they may also struggle through a 60-to 70-hour work week and then be awakened-at 4 a.m to deal with a sudden emergency.
3. In addition to medical knowledge and techniques, physicians needsocial skills in order to be successful with patients. Making an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment is only part of the job. After that, the physician must explain to the patient (in simple layman’s terms) the nature of the condition. Next, the physician must give advice and sometimes offer alternatives. But what if the patient doesn’t want to take the doctor’s advice? Thephysician tries to persuade a self-indulgent patient to give up cigarettes or salt, convince a frightened patient that surgery is essential, or encouragen a patient with emotional problems to seek psychiatric help. Sometimes it is necessary for the physician to give a patient very bad news, and this difficult task must be carried out with kindness and without destroying the patient’s ability to facethe future. In short, doctors who work directly with patients (and most do) need people skills. The physician who can reassure and comfort a sick patient is said to have a good bedside manner.
4. In the United States, the training of a physician actually begins with what are called ¨pre-med¨ courses, the science and math classes required during undergraduate training for all who intend to applyto medical school. The curriculum includes biology and mathematics, Biochemistry, Organic and inorganic chemistry, and histology. Most students complete four years of undergraduate work before entering medical school, which takes another three or four years. After graduating from medical school, the student has earned the title M.D (doctor of medicine). Those who graduate also licensed to practicemedicine after passing the state exam.
5. An internship, or hands-on hospital training, is a essential part of a physician’s training. In the past, a year of internship (rotating, supervised service in various hospital departments) followed medical school. Today, in many hospitals, a physician in training may serve as an intern during the final year of med school or the first years of aresidency (specialty training). An internship in only one specialized service is called a ‘’straight’’ internship.
6. In order to practice medicine in a particular state, a physician must take the exam in that state. Although there is no reciprocity between most states, doctors who move to certain state may be forced to undergo a medical examination of the new state in order to obtain a license topractice there.
7. Young doctors in the United States today choose to specialize. To become a specialist, a physician must first be trained in a program called proving a residence. This training is three to seven years, depending on area of expertise. Residency training takes place in a hospital or outpatient facility, where specialists in training (called residents) serves patients under thesupervision of an experienced teacher. After completing training, the specialist can then take an examination given by the specialty board that are applying to. those who pass are called board certified specialist. In the United States, are 24 specialists recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA). Some special plates require physicians to...