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Learning System for Automation and Technology

Programmable logic
controllers
Basic level TP301 – Textbook

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Authorised applications and liability
The Learning System for Automation and Technologyhas been developed and prepared exclusively for training in the field of automation. The
training organization and/or trainee shall ensure that the safety precautions described in the accompanying Technical documentation are fully
observed.
Festo Didactic hereby excludes any liability for injury to trainees, to the
training organization and/or to third parties occurring as a result of the
useor application of the station outside of a pure training situation, unless caused by premeditation or gross negligence on the part of Festo
Didactic.
Order No.:
Description:
Designation:
Edition:
Layout:
Graphics:
Authors:

093311
SPS LB GS
D.LB-TP301–1-GB
08/2002
28.08.2002, OCKER Ingenieurbüro
D. Schwarzenberger, OCKER Ingenieurbüro
R. Bliesener, F.Ebel, C.Löffler, B. Plagemann,H.Regber, E.v.Terzi, A. Winter

© Copyright by Festo Didactic GmbH & Co., D-73770 Denkendorf 2002
The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the
communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization
is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages.
All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utilitymodel
or ornamental design registrations.
Parts of this training documentation may be duplicated, solely for training
purposes, by persons authorised in this sense.

TP301 • Festo Didactic

B-III

Preface
The programmable logic controller represents a key factor in industrial
automation. Its use permits flexible adaptation to varying processes as
well as rapid fault finding and errorelimination.
This textbook explains the design of a programmable logic controller and
its interaction with peripherals.
One of the main focal points of the textbook deals with the new international standard for PLC programming, the EN 61131-3 (IEC-61131-3).
This standard takes into account expansions and developments, for
which no standardised language elements existed hitherto.
The aim of thisnew standard is to standardise the design, functionality
and the programming of a PLC in such a way as to enable the user to
easily operate with different systems.
In the interest of continual further improvement, all readers of this book
are invited to make contributions by way suggestions, ideas and constructive criticism.
August 2002

TP301 • Festo Didactic

The authors

B-IVTP301 • Festo Didactic

B-V

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Automating with a PLC

B-1

1.1

Introduction

B-1

1.2

Areas of application of a PLC

B-2

1.3

Basic design of a PLC

B-5

1.4

The new PLC standard EN 61131 (IEC 61131)

B-8

Chapter 2 Fundamentals

B-11

2.1

The decimal number system

B-11

2.2

The binary number system

B-11

2.3

TheBCD code

B-13

2.4

The hexadecimal number system

B-13

2.5

Signed binary numbers

B-14

2.6

Real numbers

B-14

2.7

Generation of binary and digital signals

B-15

Chapter 3 Boolean operations

B-19

3.1

Basic logic functions

B-19

3.2

Further logic operations

B-23

3.3

Establishing switching functions

B-25

3.4

Simplification oflogic functions

B-28

3.5

Karnaugh-Veitch diagram

B-30

TP301 • Festo Didactic

B-VI

Chapter 4 Design and mode of operation of a PLC

B-33

4.1

Structure of a PLC

B-33

4.2

Central control unit of a PLC

B-35

4.3

Function mode of a PLC

B-37

4.4

Application program memory

B-39

4.5

Input module

B-41

4.6

Output module

B-43

4.7...
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