Polimeros biodegradables como biomateriales

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ARTICLE IN PRESS

Prog. Polym. Sci. 32 (2007) 762–798 www.elsevier.com/locate/ppolysci

Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials
Lakshmi S. Naira, Cato T. Laurencina,b,c,Ã
b

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Virginia, VA 22903, USA Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Virginia, VA 22903, USA c Department of Chemical Engineering, The University ofVirginia, VA 22903, USA

a

Received 17 April 2007; received in revised form 23 May 2007; accepted 24 May 2007 Available online 11 June 2007

Abstract During the past two decades significant advances have been made in the development of biodegradable polymeric materials for biomedical applications. Degradable polymeric biomaterials are preferred candidates for developing therapeutic devices suchas temporary prostheses, three-dimensional porous structures as scaffolds for tissue engineering and as controlled/sustained release drug delivery vehicles. Each of these applications demands materials with specific physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties to provide efficient therapy. Consequently, a wide range of natural or synthetic polymers capable of undergoingdegradation by hydrolytic or enzymatic route are being investigated for biomedical applications. This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years, outlining the synthesis, biodegradability and biomedical applications of biodegradable synthetic and natural polymers. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biodegradable; Polymers; Biomaterials; Hydrolyticdegradation; Enzymatic degradation

Contents 1. 2. 3. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763 Biodegradable polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764 Hydrolytically degradable polymers asbiomaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 3.1. Poly(a-esters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 3.1.1. Polyglycolide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 3.1.2.Polylactides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768 3.1.3. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769 3.1.4. Polydioxanone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 770 3.1.5. Polycaprolactone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 3.1.6. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771 3.1.7. Bacterial polyesters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 771 3.2. Polyurethanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772

ÃCorresponding author. The University of Virginia, 400 Ray C. Hunt Drive, Suite 330, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA. Tel.: +1 434 243 0250; fax: +1 434 243 0252. E-mail address: ctl3f@virginia.edu (C.T. Laurencin).0079-6700/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.05.017

ARTICLE IN PRESS
L.S. Nair, C.T. Laurencin / Prog. Polym. Sci. 32 (2007) 762–798 763

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3.3. Poly(ester amide) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 3.4. Poly(ortho esters) . . . . ....
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