Practical electronics handbook

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PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK

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PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK
SIXTH EDITION

IAN R. SINCLAIR AND JOHN DUNTON

AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier

Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford, OX2 8DP 30Corporate Drive, Burlington, MA 01803 First edition 1980 Reprinted 1982, 1983 (with revisions), 1987 Second edition 1988 Reprinted 1990 Third edition 1992 Fourth edition 1994 Reprinted 1997, 1998, 1999 Fifth edition 2000 Reprinted 2001 Sixth edition 2007 Copyright © 1980, 1988, 1992, 1994, 2000, 2007, Ian R. Sinclair and John Dunton. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved The right of IanR. Sinclair and John Dunton to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permission maybe sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumedby the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British LibraryCataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Cover photo by Thomas Scarborough, reproduced by permission of Everyday Practical Electronics. www.epemag.co.uk ISBN 13: 978-0-75-068071-4 ISBN 10: 0-75-068071-7 For information onall Newnes publications visit our web site at books.elsevier.com Typeset by Cepha Ltd Printed and bound in Great Britain 07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

v

CONTENTS
Preface Introduction: Mathematical Conventions CHAPTER 1 Resistors
Passive components Resistors Resistivity Resistivity calculations Resistor construction Tolerances and E-series Resistance value coding Surfacemounted resistors Resistor characteristics Dissipation and temperature rise Variables and laws Resistors in circuit Kirchoff’s laws The superposition theorem Thevenin’s theorem Thermistors Variation of resistance with temperature 1 2 3 4 7 9 10 13 13 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 26

xiii xv 1

CHAPTER 2

Capacitors
Capacitance The parallel-plate capacitor Construction Other capacitor characteristicsEnergy and charge storage Time constants Reactance CR circuits 29 29 31 36 39 39 43 45

29

CHAPTER 3

Inductive and Tuned Circuit Components
Inductors Transformers 47 51

47

vi

Contents

Signal-matching transformers Mains transformers Other transformer types Surface-mounted inductors Inductance calculations Untuned transformers Inductive reactance LCR circuits Coupled tunedcircuits Quartz crystals Temperature effects Wave filters

54 57 61 62 64 67 68 68 73 76 79 79

CHAPTER 4

Chemical Cells and Batteries
Introduction Primary and secondary cells Battery connections Simple cell The Leclanché cell The alkaline primary cells Miniature (button) cells Lithium cells Secondary cells Nickel–cadmium cells Lithium-ion rechargeable cells 83 84 85 87 89 92 94 95 99 104...
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