Pretroleum geology

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Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees.
Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public
domain may not be copied,reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third
parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission
of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : General Engineering For additional information on this subject, contact
File Reference: AGE-106.03 PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556
Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
PETROLEUMGEOLOGY AND RESERVOIRS
Engineering Encyclopedia Introduction to Exploration, Drillling and Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum Geology and Reservoirs
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards i
Section Page
INFORMATION ............................................................................................................... 4INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 4
ROCK STRUCTURES .................................................................................................... 4
Earth Structure ..................................................................................................... 4
Classes ofRock.................................................................................................... 9
Igneous Rock............................................................................................. 9
Sedimentary Rock .............................................................................................. 11
Metamorphic Rock.............................................................................................. 16
Historical Geology.............................................................................................. 23
The Rock Record..................................................................................... 23
Geologic Time Scale .......................................................................................... 26
GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS......................................................................... 31
SourceRock....................................................................................................... 31
STORAGE OF HYDROCARBONS ............................................................................... 33
Reservoir Rock................................................................................................... 33
Porosity.............................................................................................................. 33
Fluid Saturations...................................................................................... 34
Permeability ............................................................................................. 39
Geologic Traps ................................................................................................... 42Anticlinal Traps ........................................................................................ 43
Fault Traps ......................................................................................................... 47
Salt Dome Traps...................................................................................... 48
Stratigraphic Unconformity................................................................................. 50
Facies Change ................................................................................................... 52
Types of Reservoirs............................................................................................ 53
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS......................................................................... 56
Absolute...
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