According to Thomas R. Trautman, the author of the book “India Brief history of a civilization” a civilization can mean both a quality and a way of life. Indian civilizations have been shaped by many causes, influences, and different time, religious, economical models, among many other factors that I will try to cover in this essay.
The location andgeography have been key factors in the progression of the diverse Indian civilizations. The Himalayas, tallest mountains in the world, along the northern edge of the Indian subcontinent have put anatural barricade between the people of India and their surrounding peoples. Rich soils lie along the southern edge of the Great Himalayas that receive a great deal of rain. The flood plains of theIndus River in the west and the Ganges River in the east are crucial in allowing India to be home to some of the richest agricultural areas in the world therefore agriculture and populationconcentrated mainly in the coasts. The southern part of India is a large peninsula with a mountain range lining the western coast and the remainder being a flat plateau, known as the Deccan. The west coast isblocked off from the sea by a mountain range, called Kirthar and Suleiman.
The earliest civilization in India was the ‘” Indus Vallley Civilization” which arose in the third millennium BCE. Thiscivilization also called the Harpappa civilization covered what today is Punjab, Haryana, Sindh, Baluchistan, western Uttar Pradesh, Rajastha and Gujarat. The Indus civilization is one of the earliestcivilizations. It was a well organized, structured and planified civilization which had extraordinary drainage systems, kelp- burnt brick houses, wells, baths managing to distinguish themselves bybeing the architectures of South Asia’s first cities. This civilization settled in mainly two cities, Mohenjo- daro and Harappa. The population was at about 41, 000 and 23, 000, respectively.