In the first half of the XIX century the pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution gave rise to a movement called socialism. It is system in which society, usually in theform of government, owns and controls the means of production.
The utopian socialism was developed in England, the creators believed that human cooperation was superior to the competition thatcharacterized early industrial capitalism, and also they were against private property and competitive spirit of early industrial capitalism.
Charles Fourier – he proposed the phalansteries=cooperative living
Robert Owen - believe in a cooperative environment
Louis Blanc – called for the establishment of workshops and government assistance
Frances Wright and Flora Tristan – called for theemancipation of women and ABSOLUTE EQUALITY
In France socialism was more philosophic than in England. Henri de Saint-Simon, is called the founder of French socialism, he argued that a brotherhood of manmust accompany the scientific organization of industry and society. He proposed that production and distribution be carried out by the state, and that allowing everyone to have equal opportunity todevelop their talents would lead to social harmony and the traditional state could be virtually eliminated, or transformed. "Rule over men would be replaced by the administration of things.”Socialist Countries
Below is a table with countries that adopted socialism as their political system. Also the year it started and ended
Country | System | Start | End |
Mongolia | People's Republic |1922 | 1990 |
Soviet Union | Federation of Socialist Republics | 1922 | 1991 |
Chile | Socialist Republic | 1932 | 1932 |
Bulgary | People's Republic | 1944 | 1989 |
Albania | People's Republic| 1945 | 1992 |
Hungary | People's Republic | 1945 | 1989 |
Yugoslavia | Federal Socialist Republic | 1945 | 1992 |
Poland | People's Republic | 1947 | 1989 |
Romania | People's Replubic...