In the first half of the XIX century the pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution gave rise to a movement called socialism. It is system in which society, usually in the form of government, owns and controls the means of production.
The utopian socialism was developed in England, the creators believed that human cooperation was superior to the competition thatcharacterized early industrial capitalism, and also they were against private property and competitive spirit of early industrial capitalism.
Charles Fourier – he proposed the phalansteries =cooperative living
Robert Owen - believe in a cooperative environment
Louis Blanc – called for the establishment of workshops and government assistance
Frances Wright and Flora Tristan – called for theemancipation of women and ABSOLUTE EQUALITY
In France socialism was more philosophic than in England. Henri de Saint-Simon, is called the founder of French socialism, he argued that a brotherhood of man must accompany the scientific organization of industry and society. He proposed that production and distribution be carried out by the state, and that allowing everyone to have equal opportunity todevelop their talents would lead to social harmony and the traditional state could be virtually eliminated, or transformed. "Rule over men would be replaced by the administration of things.”
Below is a table with countries that adopted socialism as their political system. Also the year it started and ended
Country | System | Start | End |
Mongolia | People's Republic |1922 | 1990 |
Soviet Union | Federation of Socialist Republics | 1922 | 1991 |
Chile | Socialist Republic | 1932 | 1932 |
Bulgary | People's Republic | 1944 | 1989 |
Albania | People's Republic | 1945 | 1992 |
Hungary | People's Republic | 1945 | 1989 |
Yugoslavia | Federal Socialist Republic | 1945 | 1992 |
Poland | People's Republic | 1947 | 1989 |
Romania | People's Replubic(since 1965 Socialist Republic) | 1947 | 1989 |
Czechoslovakia | República Socialista Federal | 1948 | 1989 |
West Germany | Democratic Republic | 1949 | 1990 |
Somalia | Democratic Republic | 1969 | 1990 |
Congo | People's Republic | 1970 | 1991 |
South Yemen | Democratic People's Republic | 1974 | 1990 |
Angola | People's Republic | 1975 | 1992 |
Benin | People's Republic | 1975 | 1989|
Ethiopia | Democratic People's Republic | 1975 | 1991 |
Mozambique | People's Republic | 1975 | 1990 |
Libia | Yamahiriya | 1977 | 2011 |
Afganistan | Democratic Republic | 1978 | 1992 |
Camboya | People's Republic | 1979 | 1993 |
Seychelles | People's Republic | 1979 | 1992 |
Reasons For Socialism
1. Education Equality: Public education is an example of attempting toequalize the minimum education for all people.
2. Economic Equality: Minimum wage, food stamps, social security, and public housing are just some ways to reduce absolute poverty.
3. Medical Equality: Socialized healthcare means that everyone receives the same minimum healthcare, even if unemployed and unable to pay for medical needs.
4. Political Equality: Socialism increases workers’ rightsand is more likely to allow more than only two dominate political parties.
5. Caste system: As the wealth of the nation had to be equally distributed, all the people received the same and felt the same, so the caste system or social classes disappeared.
6. People´s happiness: The socialist leaders assumed that the people´s happiness would deliver completely if everyone received the sameresources. This concept has some of its origins in the Bible, so this made them to be more convinced.
7. Private property: Socialism seeks to redistribute wealth and lands to ensure that the means of production are at the service of the whole society, so that all can benefit and none will go without.
8. Ruling system: In the socialist nation, the society is ruled by the people, and not by...