Protistas

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August 31, 2011

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August 31, 2011
whip-like flagellum. Causes African sleeping
sickness.

PROTISTA

Protocol, background and additional information Copyright © 1989 J. L. Stein Carter

I.
1.
2.

OBJECTIVES:
To examine prepared and/or live slides of various protists that live in theworld around us.
To taste some of the algae normally eaten by humans.

BACKGROUND:
Protists are the most primitive
eukaryotes (eu = good, well, true; karyon =
nut, kernel, nucleus). They may be found
essentially anywhere there is water: oceans,
lakes and rivers, damp soil and leaf litter, and
within the bodies of other organisms. Most of
them have aerobic (aer = air, atmosphere,
oxygen)respiration. Some have chloroplasts
and carry on photosynthesis while others are
heterotrophs (hetero = other, different; troph
= food, nourish, nourishment) and still others

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(eu = good, well, true; gleno = pit, socket;
phyta = plant)
Euglena sp. Note anterior flagellum, reddish
stigma (stigma = spot) or eyespot, nucleus,
green chloroplasts (chloro = green; plast =
formed or molded).These are autotrophs or
heterotrophs (auto = self; hetero = other,
different; troph = food, nourish, nourishment),
depending on presence/absence of light.

II.

do both. Many protists have cilia (cili =
eyelash, small hair) and/or flagella (flagellum
= whip). Some, but not all of them, are
capable of sexual reproduction and meiosis.
Many can survive periods of unfavorable
conditions byforming cysts. Several of the
larger algae, especially various brown and red
algae are eaten by humans in other cultures.
Being marine, these algae are good sources of
various minerals, including iodine.

III. MATERIALS NEEDED:
microscope, slide(s), and coverslip(s), depression slides
prepared slides and/or plastic mounts
Trypanosoma (PS300 & 310)
Diatoms (B21)
Amoeba
Chondrus crispus(in plastic)
Fucus (in plastic) Euglena
Spirogyra (conjugation) (B65) Ulva (in plastic) Volvox
+ others, optional
edible algae
Ulothrix

live protists
Paramecium
Closterium
Spirogyra
Slime mold (Physarum)

Figure 5. Diatoms (Live)

Figure 3. Trypanosoma & RBCs (Preserved)

PHYLUM BACILLARIOPHYTA
(bacill = a little stick)
Diatoms Note variety of shapes, glasslike cellwalls/shells
PHYLUM CHLOROPHYTA
(GREEN ALGAE)
(chloro = green, phyta = plant)

ALGAL PROTISTS

IV.

PROCEDURE:
Examine slide(s) and/or plastic mounts of the following protists as available. Draw what
you see and label parts such as nucleus, chloroplasts, vacuoles, cilia, flagellum, etc. when visible.
Note whether the organisms are unicellular (uni- = one), colonial, or multicellular.kidney-like function in that it works to expel
PROTOZOAN PROTISTS
excess water from the Paramecium),
macronucleus, micronuclei, food vacuoles
(macro = large, long; micro = small). Note
that while many of these structures will be
visible on a prepared slide, a number of them
may not be visible or as visible in living
Paramecium.

Figure 1. Amoeba (Live)
PHYLUM RHIZOPODA
(rhizo =root; poda = foot)Amoeba sp.
(amoeb = change) Note
pseudopodia (pseudo = false). Unicellular.
PHYLUM CILIOPHORA
(cili = eyelash, small hair; phora = to bear,
carry)
Paramecium sp. (paramec = oblong, oval)
Note numerous cilia, oral groove leading to
“mouth,” contractile vacuole (which serves a

Figure 2. Paramecium (Preserved and Live)
PHYLUM ZOOMASTIGOPHORA
(zoo = animal; mastigo = whip
Trypanosomagambiense (trypano = a hole,
bore; soma = body; gam = marriage; bios =
life; -ense = of, belonging to) Note RBCs.
Small black “wiggly” things are them. Note

Figure 4. Euglena (Live)
PHYLUM EUGLENOPHYTA

Figure 6. Chlamydomonas (Live)
Chlamydomonas sp. (chlamy = a cloak; domo
= a house) Unicellular. Note eyespot,
chloroplast, two flagella, nucleus.
Ulva sp. (Sea Lettuce) (ulva = a...
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