Pstbellum in mexico

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Copyright by Emily Rose Kinney 2011

The Thesis Committee for Emily Rose Kinney Certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis:

Leaving the United States for the “Land of Liberty”: Postbellum Confederates in Mexico

APPROVED BY SUPERVISING COMMITTEE:

Supervisor: Frank Guridy Matthew Butler

Leaving the United States for the “Land of Liberty”: PostbellumConfederates in Mexico

by Emily Rose Kinney, B.A.

Thesis
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Master of Arts

The University of Texas at Austin August 2011

Acknowledgements

My very first experience in an archive was at the Missouri State Archives, where the archivist, with nosmall amount of excitement, convinced me that this project was possible. I have long since lost his card but I feel truly indebted to him and the many other archivists who have taken an interest in this project. After hearing some true horror stories, I feel immensely fortunate to have never met an archivist who wasn’t willing to chat about my sources. I would like to thank Frank Guridy for his help,support and advice that have made both this thesis and my experience as a graduate student so much better. I am also grateful to Matthew Butler who often gives the most perfect words to organize my jumbled thoughts. Finally, I would like to thank Giovanni Batz for the all-nighters at coffee shops and for caring enough to remember who John Henry Brown is. And, my eternal gratitude to my family forbeing amazing.

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Abstract

Leaving the United States for the “Land of Liberty”: Postbellum Confederates in Mexico

Emily Rose Kinney, MA The University of Texas at Austin, 2011

Supervisor: Frank Guridy At the end of the US Civil War, thousands of former Confederates refused to live in a Reconstructed South, packed up their belongings, and left the country. The vast majority ofthese Southerners went to Mexico, Brazil and British Honduras. This thesis focuses on a settlement of Confederate families in Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico. By studying one settlement in depth, I demonstrate that the migrants were not all economic refugees or war refugees who uniformly returned to the United States. Instead, it shows the complex ideologies that prompted the creation of the settlement andpromoted its development. The efforts of the settlers hinged heavily on race, making the settlement an important place to examine the way that race is created and utilized internationally. Accustomed to framing themselves as white in opposition to US blacks, the Southerners in Mexico had to reconstruct their whiteness in opposition their non-white Mexican neighbors. At the same time, they shaped anexoticized form of whiteness for their v

“Spanish” Mexican neighbors in order to prove to their friends and family in the United States that Mexico was a sufficiently civilized place.

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Table of Contents
Introduction..............................................................................................................1
  Regionalization ofRacialization.....................................................................6
  Structure of Thesis ........................................................................................10
  Chapter 1 Developing a Confederate Community in Tuxpan ...............................14
  The Tuxpan Settlement .................................................................................19
  Developing a ConfederateCommunity in Tuxpan .......................................25
  Chapter 2 Racializing Southerners, Racializing Mexicans....................................38
  Opinions of Mexicans in the United States...................................................39 Mexicans as Laborers ...................................................................................43
  Mexicans as Neighbors...
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