Public opinion

Páginas: 1628 (406972 palabras) Publicado: 8 de enero de 2012

Donna Bahry The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Russell Dalton University of California–Irvine Irvine, California Robert Erikson Columbia University New York, New York Peter Esaiasson Göteborg University Göteborg, Sweden Susan Herbst Temple University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania John Zaller University ofCalifornia–Los Angeles Los Angeles, California

A Historical Encyclopedia Volume 1

John G. Geer, Editor

Santa Barbara, California Denver, Colorado Oxford, England

Copyright © 2004 by John G. Geer All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Public opinion and polling around the world : a historical encyclopedia / John G. Geer, editor. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 1-57607-911-2 (hardcopy : alk. paper) ISBN1-57607-912-0 (e-book) 1. Public opinion polls—History. 2. Public opinion polls—Crosscultural studies. 3. Public opinion—United States—History. I. Geer, John Gray. HM1236.P83 2004 303.3’8—dc22 2004011691 08 07 06 05 04 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

This book is also available on the World Wide Web as an e-book. Visit for details. ABC-CLIO, Inc. 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911 Santa Barbara,California 93116-1911 This book is printed on acid-free paper ∞ . Manufactured in the United States of America


Preface, ix Part 1 The Role of Public Opinion in Democracy Section One: Measuring Public Opinion, 3 The Sociological Perspective, Nancy Carrillo, 3 The Psychological Perspective, Steven Greene, 9 A Mass Media Perspective, Patricia Moy and Dietram A. Scheufele, 26Section Two: Shaping Public Opinion, 33 Interest Groups, Diane J. Heith, 33 News Media, Diane J. Heith, 38 Political Parties, Sean Hogan, 44 Presidents, Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha, 49 Presidents and Foreign Policy, Andrew Z. Katz, 55 Part 2 Public Opinion in the United States Section One: History, 67 Founding-Era Elections: 1787–1824, Ryan Lee Teten, 67 Jacksonian-Era Elections: 1828–1848, Pearl T. Ponce,75 Civil War–Era Elections: 1850–1866, Yonatan Eyal, 81 Reconstruction-Era Elections: 1868–1892, Ryan Lee Teten, 87 Progressive-Era Elections: 1894–1928, Joel David Bloom, 93 Depression-Era Elections: 1930–1940, Joel David Bloom, 101 World War II–Era Elections: 1942–1958, Richard W. Boyd, 109 Cold War Elections: 1960–1976, Valerie Adams, 120 Post–Cold War Elections: 1978–1990, Gar Culbert, 127Contemporary Elections: 1990–Present, Jeremy Clayne Pope, 132 Section Two: Issues, 140 Abortion, Brett M. Clifton, 140 Affirmative Action, Chris T. Owens, 145 Alienation, Priscilla L. Southwell, 151 The Campaign, Christopher C. Blunt, 157 65 1



Contents Campaign Finance Reform, David M. Primo, 165 Civil Liberties, Alex R. Trouteaud, 171 Civil Rights: 1942–2000, Mark Kemper, 176 DeathPenalty, Christopher D. Karadjov, 186 Domestic Politics, Douglas C. Foyle, 194 The Economy, Kevin Arceneaux, 199 Education, Thomas M. Smith, 212 Elected Officials, Stacy G. Ulbig, 220 The Environment, Anthony C. Coveny and Courtney M. Rogers, 229 Foreign Policy, Douglas C. Foyle, 234 Gay and Lesbian Rights, Ewa A. Golebiowska, 244 Globalization, Amy Carter, 251 Government Spending, Bryan E. Denham,255 Health Care, Jason Barabas and Jennifer Jerit, 260 Ideology, Kyle L. Saunders, 268 Latino Voices, Jason P. Casellas, 280 The Middle East, Anthony C. Coveny and Francis A. Gross III, 287 Partisanship, Stephanie C. McLean, 293 Pseudoscience Beliefs, Susan Carol Losh, 299 Religion, Brett M. Clifton, 311 Science, Susan Carol Losh, 317 September 11, 2001, Todd S. Sechser, 327 Social Context,...
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