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Programming in Python 3
A Complete Introduction to the Python Language

Second Edition

Mark Summerfield

Upper Saddle River, NJ · Boston · Indianapolis · San Francisco p New York · Toronto · Montreal · London · Munich · Paris · Madrid p Capetown · Sydney · Tokyo · Singapore · Mexico City

Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products areclaimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. The author and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book, but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability isassumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein. The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, and brandinginterests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales (800) 382-3419 corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com For sales outside the United States, please contact: International Sales international@pearsoned.com Visit us on the Web: informit.com/aw Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Summerfield, Mark. Programming in Python 3 : a complete introduction to the Pythonlanguage / Mark Summerfield.—2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-321-68056-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Python (Computer program language) 2. Object-oriented programming (Computer science) I. Title. QA76.73.P98S86 2010 005.13’3—dc22 2009035430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication isprotected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to: Pearson Education, Inc. Rights and Contracts Department 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900 Boston, MA02116 Fax: (617) 671-3447 ISBN-13: 978-0-321-68056-3 ISBN-10: 0-321-68056-1 Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at RR Donnelley in Crawfordsville, Indiana. First printing, November 2009

In memory of Franco Rabaiotti 1961–2001

Contents at a Glance
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1. Rapid Introduction to Procedural Programming . . . 1 9

Chapter 2. Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Chapter 3. Collection Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107Chapter 4. Control Structures and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Chapter 5. Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Chapter 6. Object-Oriented Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Chapter 7. File Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287Chapter 8. Advanced Programming Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Chapter 9. Debugging, Testing, and Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Chapter 10. Processes and Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Chapter 11. Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Chapter 12. Database...
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