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Biology Vocabulary

Chapter 16 Vocabulary

Prokaryote: Group of organisms that lack a cell nucleos. They prokaryotes are divided into two domains: Bacteria and archaea. They differ from eukaryotes, which have a cell nucleous.

Protist: Diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms

Microbial: a microorganism, pathogenic bacterium

Photosynthetic: a process that converts carbon dioxide intoorganic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight.

Aerobic: is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment

Organism: is any living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism)

Archaea: Any single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria, often living in extreme environmental conditions.

Nucleotide: molecules that,when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA.

Molecular: A small particle

Cellular: the basic structural unit of all organisms.

Peptidoglycan: A polymer found in the cell walls of prokaryotes

Polymer: compound of many small molecules.
Membrane: the thin, limiting covering of a cell or cell part.

Thylakoid: is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts andcyanobacteria.
Heterotroph: An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition.

Bio film: a thin usually resistant layer of microorganisms (as bacteria)

Pathogenicity: the disease-producing capacity of a pathogen.

Metabolic: is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life.

Proteobacteria: Is amajor group (phylum) of bacteria.


Cyanobacteria: blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria that obtain energy through photosynthesis.

Plasma membrane: cell wall, cell membrane

Sac: a bag-like structure

Alveolate: The alveolates ("with cavities") are a major line of protists.

Slime molds: fungi-like organisms that use spores to reproduce.

Multicellularity: Having orconsisting of many cells: multicellular organisms.

Diatom: any of numerous microscopic, unicellular, marine or freshwater algae of the phylum Chrysophyta

Sphere: globe

Rod: rod-shaped microorganism

spiral: spiral- shaped mocroorganism

cocci(coccus): a spherical bacterium.

bacilli (bacillus): any rod-shaped or cylindrical bacterium

spirilla: spirally twisted, aerobic bacteria of thegenus Spirillum

gram stain: staining technique used to classify bacteria

capsule: a membranous sac or integument.

pili: is a hairlike appendage found on the surface of many bacteria

Eukaryotic: group of organisms that have a cell nucleos

endospore: a spore formed within a cell of a rod-shaped organism.

Dehydrate: to deprive (a chemical compound) of water or the elements ofwater.

Chemoheterotroph: organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donating molecules in their environments

chemautrophos: organism, such as bacteria, that obtain its energy through oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds.

photoautotrophs: any organism that derives its energy for food synthesis from light and is capable of using carbon dioxide as its principal source ofcarbon.

Anthrax: an infectious disease cause by a bacteria

exotoxin: a soluble toxin excreted by a microorganism.

endotoxin: is a structural component in the bacteria which is released mainly when bacteria are lysed.

tick: Ticks are blood-feeding parasites

decomposer: organism, usually a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down the cells of dead plants and animals into simpler substances.Endosymbiosis: symbiosis in which one symbiont lives within the body of the other.
Pseudopodia: a temporary protrusion of the protoplasm

Algae: eukaryotic organisms ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular forms

Flagella: lashlike appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa.etc

Plasmodial: any parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, causing...
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