Radiologia industrial

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Radiography in Modern Industry

Radiography in Modern Industry 2

Radiography in Modern Industry
FOURTH EDITION

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY Rochester, New York 14650

Acknowledgements To W. R. Garrett, H. R. Splettstosser, D. E. Titus, and all of those who have contributed to this fourth edition of Radiography in Modern Industry, we extend our sincere appreciation. Richard A. Quinn ClaireC. Sigl Editors John J. Callinan, Jr. Director of Industrial Radiology

Eastman Kodak Company 1980

Radiography in Modern Industry

4

Contents
Introduction.............................................................................................................6 Chapter 1: The Radiographic Process ..................................................................7 Chapter 2: X-Rayand Gamma-Ray Sources......................................................10 Chapter 3: Geometric Principles .........................................................................20 Chapter 4: Factors Governing Exposure.............................................................28 Chapter 5: Radiographic Screens .......................................................................39 Chapter6: Scattered Radiation ...........................................................................50 Chapter 7: Arithmetic of Exposure ......................................................................60 Chapter 8: Radiographic Image Quality and Detail Visibility...............................87 Chapter 9: Industrial X-rayFilms.........................................................................95 Chapter 10: Fundamentals of Processing .........................................................104 Chapter 11: Process Control .............................................................................121 Chapter 12: The Processing Room ...................................................................128 Chapter 13: Special Processing Techniques....................................................134 Chapter 14: Special Radiographic Techniques.................................................142 Chapter 15: Paper Radiography........................................................................176 Chapter 16: Sensitometric Characteristics of X-ray Films.................................182 Chapter 17: Film Graininess; Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Radiographs ................195Chapter 18: The Photographic Latent Image ....................................................199 Chapter 19: Protection ......................................................................................209

Introduction
Many of the spectacular scientific and engineering achievements of the past few years can be traced to nondestructive testing methods, which--by determining internalsoundness without destroying product usefulness--assure the satisfactory performance for which the product was intended. Radiography today is one of the most important, most versatile, of all the nondestructive test methods used by modern industry. Employing highly penetrating x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of radiation that do not damage the part itself, radiography provides a permanent visiblefilm record of internal conditions, containing the basic information by which soundness can be determined. In the past decade alone, the evidence from millions of film records, or radiographs, has enabled industry to assure product reliability; has provided the informational means of preventing accidents and saving lives; and has been beneficial for the user. Since economic justification is a majorcriterion for any testing method, the value of radiography lies to some extent in its ability to make a profit for its user. This value is apparent in machining operations where only pieces known to be sound are permitted on the production lines. It is equally apparent in cost reductions when less expensive materials or fabricating methods can be employed instead of costlier ones in which...
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