Part 5: Adult Basic Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Robert A. Berg, Robin Hemphill, Benjamin S. Abella, Tom P. Aufderheide, Diana M. Cave, Mary Fran Hazinski, E. Brooke Lerner, Thomas D. Rea, Michael R. Sayre and Robert A. Swor Circulation 2010;122;S685-S705 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.970939Circulation is published by the American Heart Association. 7272 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX 72514 Copyright © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0009-7322. Online ISSN: 1524-4539
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Part 5: Adult Basic Life Support
2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
Robert A. Berg, Chair; Robin Hemphill; Benjamin S. Abella; Tom P. Aufderheide; Diana M. Cave; Mary Fran Hazinski; E. Brooke Lerner; Thomas D. Rea;Michael R. Sayre; Robert A. Swor
asic life support (BLS) is the foundation for saving lives following cardiac arrest. Fundamental aspects of BLS include immediate recognition of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and activation of the emergency response system, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and rapid defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED). Initial recognition andresponse to heart attack and stroke are also considered part of BLS. This section presents the 2010 adult BLS guidelines for lay rescuers and healthcare providers. Key changes and continued points of emphasis from the 2005 BLS Guidelines include the following:
SCA has many etiologies (ie, cardiac or noncardiac causes), circumstances (eg, witnessed or unwitnessed), and settings (eg,out-of-hospital or in-hospital). This heterogeneity suggests that a single approach to resuscitation is not practical, but a core set of actions provides a universal strategy for achieving successful resuscitation. These actions are termed the links in the “Chain of Survival.” For adults they include
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Immediate recognition of SCA based on assessing unresponsivenessand absence of normal breathing (ie, the victim is not breathing or only gasping) “Look, Listen, and Feel” removed from the BLS algorithm Encouraging Hands-Only (chest compression only) CPR (ie, continuous chest compression over the middle of the chest) for the untrained lay-rescuer Sequence change to chest compressions before rescue breaths (CAB rather than ABC) Health care providers continueeffective chest compressions/CPR until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or termination of resuscitative efforts Increased focus on methods to ensure that high-quality CPR (compressions of adequate rate and depth, allowing full chest recoil between compressions, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions and avoiding excessive ventilation) is performed Continued de-emphasis on pulsecheck for health care providers A simplified adult BLS algorithm is introduced with the revised traditional algorithm Recommendation of a simultaneous, choreographed approach for chest compressions, airway management, rescue breathing, rhythm detection, and shocks (if appropriate) by an integrated team of highly-trained rescuers in appropriate settings
Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and...
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