Reglas gramaticales de ingles

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REGLAS GRAMATICALES

Tuxtla, Gutiérrez, Chiapas 9 de Julio del 2010

ENGLISH XVIII

1.- Expresión del pasado

a) Simple past --------------------------------------------------------- 2
b) Past Progressive -------------------------------------------------- 3
c) Present Perfect -------------------------------------------------- 4d) Present Perfect Progressive ------------------------------ 5
e) Past Perfect -------------------------------------------------------- 6
f) Past Perfect Progressive ------------------------------------ 7

* SimplePast Use the Simple Past toexpress the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
(Completed Action in the Past)
FORM : [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
Examples:
* I saw a movie yesterday.
* I didn't see a play yesterday.
USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions
Weuse the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
Examples:
* I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
* He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
USE 3 Duration in Past
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which startsand stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
Examples:
* I lived in Brazil for two years.
* Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
USE 4 Habits in the Past
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." Tomake it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
Examples:
* I studied French when I was a child.
* He played the violin.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above,this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
Examples:
* She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
* He didn't like tomatoes before.

* Past Progressive
FORM[was/were + present participle]
Examples:
* You were studying when she called.
* Were you studying when she called?
* You were not studying when she called.
USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past
Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be areal interruption or just an interruption in time.
Examples:
* I was watching TV when she called.
* While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
* A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
B: I was snowboarding.
USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption
In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you canalso use a specific time as an interruption.
Examples:
* Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
* At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
* Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
USE 3 Parallel Actions
When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same...
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