Relaciones internacionales

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CAPITULO 18
EUROPE IN 12 LESSONS

Robert Schuman, former French foreign minister proposed the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), making the coal resources ones the cause of war, now the ones bringing the countries together. The six founding countries of the UE were Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherlands. The idea was tosecure peace, but in 1957, the European Economic Community (EEC) was created based on a wider common market covering a whole range of goods and services.

UE has to take good care of security, the Balkans, North Africa, the Caucasus and the Middle East; and to do so is necessary to have a close relation with its allies specially the NATO and a common European security and defense policy.
It’snecessary to fight crime organizations and terrorism and to do so is required a close relation between the governments.
No European country is strong enough to go alone in world trade, but as a union it provides a great platform for the firms. Money from the European Investment Bank is used to improve the infrastructure of the union, bringing more development to its countries.

The gap betweenrich and poor still wide and to reduce it, is necessary for the countries to work together in a way in which every specialty of each nation is propriety used. It was only until 1999 that the EURO was introduce first for financial transactions, and three months later as cash and coins.

* The LISBON strategy is now implemented to make the EU more competitive and consist in promoting innovationand business investment, as well as a reform to education in Europe in order to fulfill the needs of the information society.

* The Council of the European Union is the main decision making body, the states take it in turns to hold the Council Presidency for six months period. Each council is always accompanied by a minister of the country, depending on the affair is to be discussed.(Agriculture, F. Affairs, ETC)

* The European Parliament is the representation of the European Citizens and exercises supervision over the EU activities as well as the legislative ones. They are elected every five years.

* The European Commission, are the guardians of the treaties and have to ensure that the regulations and directives adopted by the council and parliament are beingimplemented in the member states.

* The Court of Justice is made up of a judge from each country and their role is to make sure that the EU law is been fallowed and that the treaties are correctly interpret and applied, they are in charge for six years.

* The Court of Auditors checks that the EU’s budget has been managed soundly.

* The European Economic and Social Committee represents thevarious social and economical groups.

* The Committee of the Regions representatives of regional and local government.

* The European Investment Bank provides loans and guarantees to help the EU’s less developed regions.

* The European Central Bank manages the EURO and the EU’s monetary policy.

Regional AID: are meant to help develop less favored rural areas. Its budgettargeted three objectives.

1. CONVERGENCE- help the least developed ones catch up quickly, investment in physical and human capital, innovation, knowledge society, adaptation to change, environment and administrative efficiency.

2. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AND EMPLOYMENT- they make this trough entrepreneurship, accessibility and the development of inclusive job markets.

3. EUROPEANTERRITORIAL COOPERATION- increase cross border, transnational and interregional cooperation in matters that affect neighboring authorities such as urban, rural and coastal development. These objectives are financed by funds from the private sector and national and regional government.
Capitulo 20
China’s new diplomacy in Asia: The rise of China is causing a deep change in the international...
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