Fish

CONTENTS
7.1 Introduction 7.2 Species Composition and Distribution 7.2.1 Benthic (Demersal) Species 7.2.2 Bentho-Pelagic Species 7.2.3 Mesopelagic and Bathypelagic Species 7.2.4 PelagicSpecies 7.3 Morphological and Physiological Adaptations 7.3.1 Metabolic Adaptations 7.3.2 Freezing Resistance 7.3.3 Blood and Oxygen Transport Systems 7.3.4 Buoyancy Adaptations 7.4 Reproduction andGrowth 7.4.1 Age at Sexual Maturity 7.4.2 Gonad Maturation and Development 7.4.3 Ova Development and Fecundity 7.4.4 Spawning 7.4.5 Hatching Period and Larval Development 7.4.6 Reproductive Strategies 7.5Age, Growth, Mortality and Biomass Structure 7.5.1 Size and Age 7.5.2 Growth 7.5.3 Mortality 7.5.4 Biomass Estimates 7.6 Feeding Ecology 7.6.1 Feeding Niches and Food Availability 7.6.2 Niche ChangesOver the Life Cycle 7.6.3 Feeding Behavior 7.6.4 Krill Consumption by Antarctic Fish 7.6.5 Feeding Communities 7.7 Factors Controlling the Distribution, Abundance, and Trophic Ecology of AntarcticFish 7.7.1 Role of Sea Ice 7.7.2 Hydrodynamic Processes 7.7.3 Food Web Dynamics 7.7.4 Life History Processes 185 187 189 190 190 190 191 191 192 192 193 193 193 193 194 195 195 195 196 196 197 197 197198 198 199 199 203 205 207 207 208 208 208

7.1 INTRODUCTION
Investigations into Antarctic fish date back to the midnineteenth century when James Clark Ross's expedition to the Southern Ocean(1839-1843) collected the first fish specimens from Antarctic waters. Early studies were principally taxonomic and Antarctic ichthyology did not begin to broaden to include physiological and ccologicalstudies until the 1950s. In most of the world's seas, fish have been the subject of special study because of their economic

importance. However, the lack of an indigenous population, the harsh climate,and the opportunity to exploit stocks closer to the markets of the world delaycd the exploitation of fish resources of the Southern Occan. As fish stocks declined in other parts of the world's... [continua]

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