[Jim Srivener] Chapters 1-17
TEACHING and LEARNING
Teaching and learning need to be clearly distinguished. Teaching does not equal learning. The fact that the first is happening does not automatically mean that the other must occur. Learning demands energy and attention for the learner, it has to be done by the learner's own personal effort. Nobody else can transmitunderstanding or skills into your head.
THE EXPERIENTAL LEARNING CYCLE
The process of learning often involves five steps: (1) doing something, (2) recalling what happened, (3) reflecting on that, (4) drawing conclusions from the reflection, (5) using those conclusions to inform and prepare for future practical experience.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF TEACHERS
1. The explainer: teachers know thesubject matter well, but have limited knowledge of teaching methodology. This kind of teacher relies mainly on explaining or lecturing.
2. The involver: this teacher also knows the subject matter well and he or she is also familiar with the teaching methodology. This teacher tries to involve the students actively.
3. The enabler: this teacher is confident enough to share control withthe learners or perhaps to hand it over entirely. Students are encouraged to learn for themselves, while the teacher remains as a resource of information when needed.
THE SUBJECT MATTER OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
✓ Language systems: (a) phonology, (b) lexis, (c) grammar, (d) function and (e) discourse.
✓ Language skills: (a) productive (writing and speaking) and (b) receptive (readingand listening)
A method is a way of teaching. Your choice of method will depend on the teaching approach to which you subscribe. In other words, the method you choose will be determined by what you believe language is, how you think that people learn and how teaching helps to learn. Examples: the grammar translation method, the audio-lingual method, TPR, TBL.
WHAT ISCLASSROOM MANAGEMENT?
Classroom management are certain organizational skills and techniques that include: grouping and seating, tools and techniques and working with people. Classroom management involves both decisions and actions. The actions are what is done in the classroom and decisions are about whether when to do them, how to do them and who will do them.
Elicitingmeans drawing out information, language, ideas, etc from students. It is a technique based on the principles that:
✓ Students probably know a lot more than we may give them credit for
✓ Starting out with what they know is a productive way to begin new work
The distinction between authentic and restricted is whether the exposure comes from a text that is realistic(authentic exposure) or if it is from a text that has been simplified or that includes an unnaturally high number of examples of a specific target item (restricted exposure).
✓ Authentic exposure: when students are exposed to a fairly natural language. Ex: reading magazines, listening to the radio.
✓ Restricted exposure: when students are exposed to texts specifically designed to beaccessible to learners and probably to draw attention to specific language points. Ex: course books.
ROLE-PLAY, REAL-PLAY and SIMULATION
In role-play students are given some information about a role. Learners take a little preparation time and then meet with other students to act out small scenes using the language at their disposal as well as the information given in the role cards.
Realplay situations are not drawn from cards, but from a participant's own life. It is particularly useful for business and professional people.
Simulation is a larger scale role play. Role cards are normally used but there is often quite a lot of other printed and recorded background information. The intention is to create a much more complete, complex world.
FLUENCY, ACCURACY and...