Scalar units are those defined only by their magnitude. Vectorial units are those with vector characteristics.
Example of scalar magnitudes are: distance, speed, mass, time, temperature, etc.
Examples of vectorial units are: displacement, velocity, force, acceleration, etc.
In elementary mathematics, physics, and engineering, a vector is a geometric object that has both amagnitude (or length) and direction. A vector is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B, and denoted by [pic]
A vector is what is needed to "carry" the point A to the point B; the Latin word vector means "one who carries".
To add vectors there are graphic and analytic methods.Graphic methods require a ruler and a protractor. Results obtained from these methods are not accurate but give us an idea of the result. These methods are as simple as sketching every given vector one after another (the first one starts on plane’s origin, then, the second starts where the first ended and so on) forming a chain with them. You must define a proper scale for magnitude. Angle will betaken as stated.
To get accurate results there are the analytic methods, which are based on trigonometry.
When a vector is seen as a triangle, each of its sides is called “component”. You can add or subtract components as long as they lie on the same axis. Adding or subtracting depends on component’s direction (positive or negative)
The result of adding vectors is called Resultant Vector.Formulas used on analytic methods are those used to solve triangles.
R2=Vx2+Vy2 Vx=Vcosθ Vy=Vsenθ tgθ=Vy/Vx
Remember this sum is affected by every component’s direction.(Direction defines if that component will be negative or positive)
CHAPTER 2. DYMANICS
In physics, a force is any influence that causes a free body to undergoan acceleration. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull that can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity.
Types of forces
Gravitation, or gravity, is one of thefour fundamental interactions of nature in which objects with mass attract one another. In everyday life, gravitation is most familiar as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. Gravitation causes dispersed matter to coalesce, thus accounting for the existence of the Earth, the Sun, and most of the macroscopic objects in the universe.Gravitation is responsible for keeping the Earth and the other planets in their orbits around the Sun; for keeping the Moon in its orbit around the Earth; for the formation of tides; for natural convection, by which fluid flow occurs under the influence of a density gradient and gravity; for heating the interiors of forming stars and planets to very high temperatures; and for various other phenomenaobserved on Earth.
The nuclear force (or nucleon-nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between two or more nucleons. It is responsible for binding of protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei.
Electromagnetical force is associated with electric and magnetic fields and is responsible for atomic structure, chemical reactions, the attractive and repulsive forces associated withelectrical charge and magnetism, and all other electromagnetic phenomena. Electromagnetism is responsible for interactions between charged particles that occur because of their charge.
2.2 NEWTON’S LAWS
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those...