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TO BE [=ser, estar…]
Como todos los verbos auxiliares, para hacer la negativa se le añade NOT y para la interrogativa basta con cambiar el orden (en lugar de Sujeto + Verbo, ponemos Verbo + Sujeto?).
Simple Present
I am (I'm)
You are (You're)
He/She/It is (He's/ she's/ It's)
We are (We're)
You are (You're)
They are (They're) I'm not
You aren't
He/she/it isn't
We aren't
Youaren't
They aren't Am I?
Are you?
Is he/she/it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?
Simple Past
I was
You were
He/She/It was
We were
You were
They were I wasn't
You weren't
He/She/It wasn't
We weren't
You weren't
They weren't Was I?
Were you?
Was he/she/it?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?
THERE BE [=haber impersonal: "hay", "había"…]
Simple Present
There isThere are There isn't
There aren't Is there?
Are there?
Simple Past
There was
There were There wasn't
There weren't Was there?
Were there?
Nota: funciona igual que el verbo TO BE, pero colocando el pronombre impersonal «there» como sujeto, tanto en tiempos compuestos:
"There has been enough money"
como con verbos modales:
"There must be a reason".
TO HAVE (GOT) [=tener]
SimplePresent
I have (I've) got
You have (You've) got
He/She/It has (He's) got
We have (We've) got
You have (You've) got
They have (They've) got I haven't got
You haven't got
He/She/It hasn't got
We haven't got
You haven't got
They haven't got Have I got?
Have you got?
Has he/she/it got?
Have we got?
Have you got?
Have they got?
TO HAVE [verbo principal = tomar, comer...]Simple Present
I have
You have
He/She/It has
We have
You have
They have I don't have
You don't have
He/She/It doesn't have
We don't have
You don't have
They don't have Do I have?
Do you have?
Does he/she/it have?
Do we have?
Do you have?
Do they have?
Simple Past
I had
You had
He/She/It had
We had
You had
They had I didn't have
You didn't haveHe/She/It didn't have
We didn't have
You didn't have
They didn't have Did I have?
Did you have?
Did he/she/it have?
Did we have?
Did you have?
Did they have?

EXPRESIONES CON «BE» y «HAVE»

• En inglés, las expresiones «tener X años, hambre, sed, frío, calor, cuidado, miedo…» se forman con BE + adjetivo:
«be X years old, hungry, thirsty, cold, hot, careful, afraid…»

• Tambiénla hora se expresa con BE:
What's the time? / What time is it?
It is [hour] o'clock
It is (a) quarter past [hour]
It is half past [hour]
It is (a) quarter to [hour]
It is [minutes past [hour]
It is [minutes] to [hour]

• Igualmente se expresa con BE el tiempo atmosférico:
What's the weather like?
It's hot / warm / nice / cool / cold / sunny / cloudy / windy / raining / snowing…

• En inglés, los verbos de las comidas se forman con HAVE + el nombre de la comida:
«have breakfast, lunch, dinner, tea, supper»

• Otras expresiones con HAVE: «have a shower, …a bath, …a walk, …a rest, …a look, …a cigarette, …a drink»
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES y POSESIVOS
Los pronombres personales pueden ser de SUJETO (siempre son sujeto de un verbo y es la única función que puedencumplir) y de OBJETO (directo, indirecto, preposicional).
Los posesivos pueden ser ADJETIVOS (van siempre delante de un nombre, como cualquier adjectivo) y PRONOMBRES (sustituyen a un nombre con adjetivo posesivo; nunca llevan artículo. Ej: "my books" ---> "mine"; no *the mine, ni *mines).
personal pronouns possessive
subject object adjectives pronouns
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they meyou
him
her
it
us
you
them my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their mine
yours
his
hers
its
ours
yours
theirs

REGLAS DEL PLURAL
• Regla general: añadir una -S al singular: book --> bookS, tree --> treeS
• Si el nombre acaba en: -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o, añadimos -ES:
bus .... busES, class .... classES, dish .... dishES, match .... matchES,
box...
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