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USA
The fragmentation resulting from congressional institutional rules has also served to fragment interest-group activity and the operation of the federal bureaucracies. Inordinately difficult to build winning coalitions across issues areas and across states and regions. In addition, the administration of federal programmes displays no consistent pattern. (Who is responsible of what. Securityis federal and Medicaid is shared). Fragmented nature of the decision making structure. the fragmentation of spending by programme and the absence of direct state or regional access to federal decision making have made it much easier for the size and content of federal aid programmes to fluctuate according the fashion and ideology.
* Existence of distinctive regions with effective politicalaccess to rational decision-making reduces the potential for equivalent fluctuations in the size of federal government role, and in particular how it relates to the spatial distribution of grants (largesse=generosidad).

CANADA: The unresolved Federal Bargain

Origins
Canada failed to develop a strong democratic tradition with the popular will expressed through regional legislatures. Since1791 the system was characterized by a strong executive power vested in a crown-appointed governor-general. The government was facilitated through governor-dominated patronage networks which closely resembled the dynastic courts of Europe.
Disconformidad con las maneras democraticas de USA, creian que llevarian a la inestabilidad politica e incluso a la anarquia. Rikeriano fears that an AmericanInvasion was inminent were common. Only a single administration could provide for a common defense against the US and guarantee the free exchange of goods and services in a single market. pacto federal highly centralized federal system. All the powers not vested in the central government weren’t left to the states:
* Sovereignty remained with the federal government which retained the powerto invalidate provincial legislation. Entonces puede invalidar las decisions de los gobiernos provincials!
* Popular elected house of common with executive power vested in the majority commons political party.
* Seats in the senate were allocated in the provinces, but senators were to be appointed by the PM. Hence the senate, rather than being an independent force, was to become acreature of the incumbe government.
GC responsabilidades del envio, comercio, moneda, servicio postal, and banking.
GL pobreza, derechos civiles, educación, instituciones de caridad, salud y administración de la justicia cierta libertad social. También fiscal freedom they could rise taxes independently of the federal government.
* Camino a la descentralización

The Ebb and flow of FederalPower: Canadian federalism 1867-1982
Conservadores muestran en sus gobiernos que ellos buscaban un gobierno mas centralizado. El poder de las provincias aumento y luego disminuyo con WWII. Fue fluctuante. La WWII no solo amplio los poderes centrales sino también ensancho los programas federales –ej, unemployment. Continua este poder en los ’50. What was happening was a growing disjuntion betweenthe centralized institutional structure of Canadian federalism and cultural and economic descentralización in some provinces. EL S. PDOS SE FRAGMENTA the party system began to fragment with the emergence of distinctively provincial parties with few or ideological or organizational links with the national parties. Federal-provincial tensions were also apparent in fiscal federalism with increasingdistributional conflicts over the fairness of the federal grant system. High degree of fiscal asymmetry emerged. ALGUNAS PROVINCIAS SE HACEN MAS DEPENDIENTES CUANDO OTRAS SE HACEN MAS AUTOSUFICIENTES.
Desde mediados del SXX hasta casi finales, el federalismo canadiense fue abofeteado por cuatro desarrollos, tres de los cuales debilitaron el GC:
1. Incremento de la dependencia de las...
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