Retardacion mental

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  • Publicado : 7 de diciembre de 2011
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Mental retardation
. Is a condition diagnosed before age 18 that includes a general intellectual functioning below average and a lack of skills needed for daily life?

Causas
El mentalretardation affects about 1 to 3% of the population and there are many causes, but doctors find a specific reason in only 25% of cases.

A family may suspect mental retardation if motor skills, language andself-help does not seem to develop in a child or are developing at a much lower rate than their peers. Failure to adapt (adjust to new situations) normally and grow intellectually may become apparentin the early years of the child. In cases of mild retardation, the recognition of these deficiencies may take up to school age or later.

The degree of impairment because of mental retardation varieswidely, from profoundly impaired to delay mild or borderline retardation. There is now less emphasis on the degree of retardation and more on the degree of intervention and care needed for dailylife.

Risk factors are related to the causes, which can be divided roughly into several categories:

Risk factors are related to the causes, which can be divided roughly into several categories:

•Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth)
◦ congenital CMV
◦ congenital rubella
◦ congenital toxoplasmosis
◦ encephalitis
◦ HIV infection
◦ listeriosis
◦ meningitis
• chromosomalabnormalities
• Environmental
• Genetic abnormalities and inherited metabolic disorders
• Metabolic
• Nutrition
◦ • Toxic
◦ • Trauma (prenatal and postnatal)
larger for all cases ofunexplained mental retardation

Symptoms

• Ongoing child behavior
• decreased ability to learn
• Failure to meet intellectual developmental markers
• Inability to meet educational demands at school
•Lack of curiosity
Note: Changes to normal behaviors depend on the severity of the disease. Mild retardation may be associated with a lack of curiosity and quiet behavior. Severe mental retardation...
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