Pharmacol Ther.;) 2009 Jan;121(1):41-54. Epub 2008 Oct 27.
Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness.
Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. email@example.com
Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jun;122(3):e1-2; author reply e3.Stevioside, an abundant component of Stevia rebaudiana leaf, has become well-known for its intense sweetness (250-300 times sweeter than sucrose) and is used as a non-caloric sweetener in several countries. A number of studies have suggested that, beside sweetness, stevioside along with related compounds, which include rebaudioside A (second most abundant component of S. rebaudiana leaf), steviol andisosteviol (metabolic components of stevioside) may also offer therapeutic benefits, as they have anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diarrheal, diuretic, and immunomodulatory actions. It is of interest to note that their effects on plasma glucose level and blood pressure are only observed when these parameters are higher than normal. As steviol can interactwith drug transporters, its role as a drug modulator is proposed. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pharmacological actions, therapeutic applications, pharmacokinetics and safety of stevioside and related compounds. Although much progress has been made concerning their biological and pharmacological effects, questions regarding chemical purity and safety remain unsolved. Theseissues are discussed to help guide future research directions.
PMID: 19000919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Agric Food Chem.;) 2006 Feb 8;54(3):785-9.
Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Activities of Stevioside and Its Metabolite Steviol on THP-1 Cells.
Boonkaewwan C, Toskulkao C, Vongsakul M.
Departments of Physiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, MahidolUniversity, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
Stevioside, a natural noncaloric sweetener isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, possesses anti-inflammatory and antitumor promoting properties; however, no information is available to explain its activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of stevioside and its metabolite, steviol. Stevioside at 1mM significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and slightly suppressed nitric oxide release in THP-1 cells without exerting any direct toxic effect, whereas steviol at 100 microM did not. Activation of IKKbeta and transcription factor NF-kappaB were suppressed by stevioside, as demonstrated by Western blotting. Furthermore, only stevioside inducedTNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and nitric oxide release in unstimulated THP-1 cells. Release of TNF-alpha could be partially neutralized by anti-TLR4 antibody. This study suggested that stevioside attenuates synthesis of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells by interfering with the IKKbeta and NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and stevioside-induced TNF-alpha secretion is partially mediated throughTLR4.
Phytochemistry.;) 2003 Nov;64(5):913-21.
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Catholic University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. The occurrence of the sweeteners, theirbiosynthetic pathway and toxicological aspects are discussed. The metabolism of stevioside is discussed in relation with the possible formation of steviol. The conclusion is that Stevia and stevioside are safe when used as a sweetener.
J Agric Food Chem.;) 2008 May 28;56(10):3777-84.
Specific immunomodulatory and secretory activities of stevioside and steviol in...