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Microvascular Research 79 (2010) 193–199

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Microvascular Research
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / y m v r e

Endothelial precursors in vascular repair
John Paul Kirton, Qingbo Xu ⁎
Cardiovascular Division, King's College London BHF Centre, London, UK

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c tThe endothelium is an essential component of the cardiovascular system, playing a vital role in blood vessel formation, vascular homeostasis, permeability and the regulation of inflammation. The integrity of the endothelial monolayer is also critical in the prevention of atherogenesis and as such, restoration of the monolayer is essential following damage or cell death. Over the past decade, datahas suggested that progenitor cells from different origins within the body are released into the circulation and contribute to reendothelialisation. These cells, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), also gave rise to the theory of new vessel formation within adults (vasculogenesis) without proliferation and migration of mature endothelial cells (angiogenesis). As such, intense research hasbeen carried out identifying how these cells may be mobilised and contribute to vascular repair, either encouraging vasculogenesis into regions of ischemia or the re-endothelialisation of vessels with a dysfunctional endothelium. However, classification and isolation procedures have been a major problem in this area of research and beneficial use for therapeutic application has been controversial.In the present review we focus on the role of EPCs in vascular repair. We also provide an update on EPC classification and discuss autologous stem cell-derived endothelial cell (EC) as a functional source for therapy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 14 November 2009 Accepted 15 February 2010 Available online 22 February 2010 Keywords: Progenitor cells EPCAtherosclerosis Endothelial repair

Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isolation, characterisation and origins of EPCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Physiological and pathological influences on EPC mobilisation and homing. EPCs and vascular repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stem cell differentiation towards endothelial lineage . . . . . . . . . . . Summary and perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 194 194 194 194195 196 196 196 198 198

Introduction Despite significant advances made in cardiovascular medicine in recent decades, vascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Coronary artery disease, the main form of cardiovascular related deaths, develops following atherogenesis, i.e. gradual arterial

⁎ Corresponding author. Cardiovascular Division, King's College London BHF Centre, 125...
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