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Guide to Reading
Josue Salvador Vilchis Olalde
* Unit 1 - New patterns of civilization
* Chapter 3 -The Age of exploration
* Section 1 – Exploration and expansion (page 67 to 73)

Main Idea
* In the fifteenth century, Europeans began to explore the world.
* Portugal, Spain, the DutchRepublic, and England reached new economic heights through worldwide trade.
Key Terms
a)
b) Conquistador.- A Spanish conqueror of the Americas.

c) Colony.- A settlement of peopleliving in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control.

d) Mercantilism.- A set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century;it held that the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver.

e) Balance of trade.- The difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports over time.People to Identify
a) Vasco de Gama.- Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.b) Christopher Columbus.- Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents inthe Western Hemisphere. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements in the island of Hispaniola, initiated the process of Spanish colonization, which foreshadowed the generalEuropean colonization of the "New World".

c) John Cabot.- An Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America is commonly held to have been the first European encounterwith the continent of North America since the Norse Vikings in the eleventh century.

d) Amerigo Vespucci.- A Florentine, went along on several voyages and wrote letters describing the lands...
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