Robotics means the study and application of robot technology. The goal of robotics is to mimic natural world as closely as possible. The main elements in the robot are the moving elements and the sensors. The basic structure of a robot is the robotic arm.
This paper deals with the evolution of robots, the elements of robotics, the limitation ofrobots and the various applications of robots.
Robots have always had a fascination in our mind. With their various applications in various fields, they have become a common part in our daily life. They are meant to ease our work and increase our comfort of living.
As Robots come in various forms and have application in various fields defining a Robot becomes that much difficult.There are various definitions for the term Robot. Some of them are:
* Force through intelligence.
* An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human.
* A robot is a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, Parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the Performance ofa variety of tasks.( The most accepted definition of a Robot provided by the Robotics Institute of America in 1979).
HISTORY OF ROBOTICS
Robotics compared to other branches is a relatively new field of engineering. It is a multi-disciplinary field. The various branches involved in the development of Robotics are:
* Mechanical Engineering: Deals with the mechanisms of Robots and theirstructure.
* Electrical Engineering: Deals with the sensing and controlling of Robots.
* Computer Engineering: Deals with the motion planning and perception of Robots.
Though the branch of Robotics is new the development of Robots started in the year 1250 when the first Robot was developed. In the period from 1250 to 1950 the Robots were developed for fun rather than for applications.
Briefdevelopments of Robots from the year 1250:
* In the year 1250 a Robot was developed that could serve the guests with food.
* In the year 1738 a Robotic duck was developed which had 4000 parts. It could, quack, bathe, drink water, eat grain, digest it and void it.
* From the year 1950, due to the development of computers and semiconductor technology Robots found their applications inIndustries. This was called the golden era of Robots.
* In 1960 electrical Robots were developed that could walk. This was done by the General Motors.
* After 1970 there were some trends that were observed in Robotics. During those periods the robots which were produced where classified into
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ROBOTS
Robots are classified depending upon the circuitry of the Robots andthe ranges of application. The classifications of Robots are into three types:
a. Simple level Robots: They are automatic machines that extend human potential. They cannot be programmed and does not contain a complex circuitry.
The best example of a simple level Robot is a semi-automatic washing machine.
b. Middle level Robots: They are those Robots which can be programmed but cannot bereprogrammed. They are multi-purpose devices. They have sensor based circuitry and can do work which humans do.
The best example of a middle level Robot is the fully automatic washing machine.
c. Complex level Robots: They are those Robots which can be programmed and also reprogrammed. They are reprogrammable, multifunctional, manipulators. They contain a model based circuitry and are verycomplex.
The best example of a complex level Robot is the personal computer.
ANATOMY OF A ROBOT
1. The Frame (or Chassis) -- This is the basic structure of your robot.
2. Power System -- Most robots use batteries, usually dry cell or sealed lead-acid batteries. A lot of small robots have two battery systems, one to drive the motors and one to power the logic (the microcontroller). Some bot...