8th C BC>510 BC : MONARCHY, first main period in Roman History (based on the dominant constitutional structure).
753 BC : Date traditional of the founding of Rome. It's obscure. The founders, according to tradition, were Romulus and Romus, Trojan's descendants. Other founders posible : The Etruscans.
6th C BC : Creation of the Comitia centuriata. First assembly.
510 BC :ABOLITION OF MONARCHY. Dividends in Rome's relations with its neighbours. An elective monarchy needs the constant support of the people, or Tarquinius Superbus somehow lost it. His apparently tyrannical ways precipitated an aristocratic revolt.
Many of the characteristic institutions of Rome (Senate and comitia centuriata) had survived the expulsion of the King.
509 BC>27 BC : REPUBLIC, secondmain period in Roman History (based on the dominant constitutional structure).
Creation of CONSULS : 2 supreme magistrates, supposed to consult each other and govern in tandem. They could veto each other's proposals. Principle invented to prevent tyranny but was a potential recipe for inaction and disaster. Appointed by the comitia centuriata, although ratification by the Senate was necessary.Creation of QUAESTORS : Chiefs administrators in Roman financial system (counterparts of the praetors in financial matters). Assisting consuls in fiscal administration. Elected by Comitia Tributa. Had to be patrician until 421 BC.
505 BC : Etruscan's defeat against Latin League.
494 BC X2 : Creation of TRIBUNES, elected to represent the Plebeian body of the people, citizens other thanpatricians. They had to be Plebeians. They presided over the conalium plebis (plebeian legislative assembly), they were members of the Senate, they could veto the acts of other magistrates. They tried to protect individuals against arbitrary exercise of power.
+/- 456 BC : peace and alliance between Rome and neighbours. Rome extend some of the rights of Roman citizenship to them : progress throughpartnership.
Earliest years of Republic : Class warfare, struggle of the orders. Many of constitutional and political developments were engendered by friction between the patricians and the plebeians.
451-450 BC :
Publication of the TWELVE TABLES, Rome's first code of law. Was a response to arbitrary fashion of the consuls). Clear statement of the law was essential. Soon after, plebiscita(resolution of plebeian assembly) should bind all Roman citizens, although ratification was necessary.
Enactment of the Twelve Table : First important landmark in Roman legal history. Concession extracted by the Plebeians during the struggle of the orders. Style : clear and simple for an intelligible publication of the law. Probably based on the existing customary law of Rome, will some royaldecrees and a few innovations added. Public and private law, the latter greatly predominant. After the 12 Tables legislation didn't constitute the dominant force in substantive law. Roman assemblies rarely enacted laws in conflict with the 12 Tables.
443 BC : Creation of CENSORS, appointed by the Comitia Centuriata to relieve the consuls of their duty of compiling a census, in which the Romanpeople were classified by wealth, tribal background and military ranking. Initially had to be patrician. Could place a nota against the name of any person who was suspected of misconduct.
421 BC : The Plebeians eligible for the office of Quaestor.
396 BC : Rome defeats Veii, a powerful city.
386 BC : heavy defeat against tribes of Gaul, city sacked but survived.
367 BC :
Creation ofURBAN PRAETORS, to reduce the legal jurisdiction of the consuls. Appointed by the Comitia centuriata. Became the chiefs administrators of the Roman legal system (minister of Justice). Immense contribution to the development of Roman civil law. (conduct the administration of Justice).
One of the Consuls had to be a Plebeian.
Restriction on the maximum amount of public land that a citizen...