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  • Publicado : 3 de noviembre de 2011
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6.2.2.7 equipment.
Reliance on imported equipment can be high in some developing nations, especially; if a high-tech turnkey package is acquired. This can create a dependence on outside suppliers; which may result in high maintenance costs and extended periods during which equipment is under repair. It is there force often worth investigation locally-made alternatives before resorting toimports. Often development aid agencies specify equipment sources to ensure quality, even though this results in increased dependence on imports.
Examples of the kind of equipment needed to establish a shrimp hatchery and shrimp or prawn farm are given in tables 10.8 and 10.11 respectively.
In some countries imports of various chemicals and therapeutants may be essential, particularly in order tomaintain a hatchery operation, if algae are to be grown from stock cultures a series of high grade nutrients will be required, and sometimes compressed carbon dioxide. For live transport compressed oxygen may be needed, though this generally widely available because of its use in hospitals and for welding torches.
6.2.2.8 TECHNICAL SERVICES AND SUPPORT.
In addition to those professional andengineering services mentioned above, others that may be needed include legal assistance, specialist plumbing, pond cleaning and harvesting services. Obviously the requirement for and availability of each of these will vary from one location to the next. Especially difficult to obrain in some countries is technical support, which can be very important when problems arise during production. A technicalsupport is often providen by extension services, disease specialists and laboratory services which can perform water quality and nutritional analyses, albeit at a cost. Some feed companies take on the role of extension agents in return for purchase of their feeds (section 11.6.2).
6.2.3 MARKETS
The identification of the market to be exploited is very important to site selection. Although muchcrustacean farming relies on distant bulk frozen markets, in which proximity is not essential, when live and fresh crustaceans are aimed at local specialist markets there are usually cost and quality benefits associated whit basing production near the consumer.
Frozen crustacean products like whole and headless shrimp are traded worldwide and the best locations to farm them are not simply determined bythe fact that most consumption is centred in japan, the usa and Europe. For example, some shrimp faming businesses who are targeting the north American market originally started their operations within the USA but have now relocated to central or south America to take advantage of more favorable climates and cheaper production costs. The savings easily outweigh any extra shipping costs. Apartfrom penaeids, other farmed crustaceans which are shipped over long distances include freshwater prawns from Thailand and crayfish from USA, both sold in Europe.
If live or fresh products are to reach the consumer before their condition and value deteriorates, the duration of transport should be just a matter of ours. Proximity to the market, or at least very efficient transports links, areessential. When limited small and local markets are targeted –for example for live craps in Asia, for live shrimps in Japan or for sales of MACROBACHIUM and crayfish either at the farm gate or direct to the catering trade –attention should be given to finding sites within reach of popularation centres or tourist areas. In southem Spain many crayfish famers have been able to take advantage of the largenumbers of holiday markets arriving each summer.
Knowledge of regional and local market conditions can also be significant to the site selection process. Often consumption rates vary greatly with season and sometimes religious taboos are significant and can severely limit local marketing opportunities. In Israel, shrimps and prawns are not considered kosher and are either exported or consumed by...
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