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Geographic settings:
Mesopotamia encompasses the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, both of which have their headwaters in the mountains of Armenia in modern-day Turkey. Both rivers are fed by numerous tributaries, and the entire river system drains a vast mountainous region. Overland routes in Mesopotamia usually follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are frequentlysteep and difficult.

Rivers of life and death: the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where good because it comes with to much water and death because it doesn’t comes with not telling and it kills everything is on his way.

The geography of Mesopotamia had a profound impact on the political development of the region. Among the rivers and streams, the Sumerian people builtthe first cities along with irrigation canals which were separated by vast stretches of open desert or swamp where nomadic tribes roamed. 

We can only speculate about early religion. When the ancient cave painters drew animals on the walls of their caves, this may have been part of a belief in the magic of animism.
In ancient Mesopotamia, the facts of nature wereattributed to the workings of divine forces. Thus, there were may gods and goddesses, including 4 creator gods. The forces of Taimat and abzu had emerged from a primordial chaos of water, created the 4 creator gods.
Important cities:
City-states of Mesopotamia created the first law codes, drawn from legal precedence and decisions made by Kings. The codesof Urukagina and Lipit Ishtar have been found. The most renowned of these was that of Hammurabi, as mentioned above, who was postumously famous for his set of laws, theCode of Hammurabi (created ca. 1780 BC), which is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.

During the third millennium BC, there developed a veryintimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[11] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.

Geographic settings:
At 1,001,450 squarekilometers (386,660 sq mi),[49] Egypt is the world's 30th-largest country. In land area, it is about the same size as all Central America,[50] twice the size of Spain.

The Nile is the longest river in the world, stretching north for approximately 4,000 miles from East Africa to the Mediterranean. Studies have shown that the River (Iteru, meaning, simply, River, as the Egyptians called it)gradually changed its location and size over millions of years. The Nile flows from the mountains in the south to the Mediterranean in the north.

The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. Saad Zaghlul was popularly elected as Prime Minister of Egypt in 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. Continuedinstability due to remaining British influence and increasing political involvement by the king led to the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the 1952 Revolution.

Egypt hosts two major religious institutions, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria established in the middle of the 1st century by Saint Mark the Evangelist, and Al-Azhar University founded in 970 CEby the Fatimids as the first[dubious – discuss] Islamic University in the world.

Important Cities:
Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, exports of natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. The completion of the Aswan High...
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