RAÚL A. POLANCO MORALES
SECRETARÍA DE EDUCACIÓN DE QUINTANA ROO
Although evaluation might have several meanings, be used in different settings and through diverse means, it involves a three-step procedure: gathering information, analysis and judgment of information, and taking decisions (Sanmarti, 2007). As the procedure remainsbasically the same, evaluation has experimented profound changes in order to suit the demand on the XXI century education.
Formative evaluation, as an educational term, was first introduced by Scriven in 1967 who related it to data that permitted successive adaptations of a new program during the phases of development and implementation. In 1968, Bloom enlarged this term of formative evaluationby applying it to student learning. His model mastery learning, based on feedback + remedial work, highlighted its benefits to learning.
Over the years, the term “evaluation” evolved in the English-language educational literature and was substituted by “assessment” when its object referred to student learning in the classroom.
This work has been done with the intention of awaken teacher´scuriosity and reflection about alternative assessment and its power to enhance student learning, one of the biggest concerns of classroom teaching. It is based mainly in other languages works on formative assessment different to English, basically Spanish and French, and the model proposed by J. Jorba, N. Sanmarti and coworkers in late 90’s, although it integrates renewed views on the topic. Eventhough this French-influenced model emerged from secondary school contexts, it can be applied to any educational setting. In the first part of this paper, a description of the model and its components will be presented. As a second point, some techniques and instruments for promoting self-regulation learning will be discussed. Finally, some of the benefits of this model, along with somerecommendations will be exposed.
The model of continual regulated learning is theoretically found on the works of Bonniol, 1981 and Nunziati, 1990, with regard to an alternative form of formative assessment, évaluation formatrice, innovative in terms of responsibility in learning. It consists of a proposal of an educational device whereby, the responsibility of learning shifts progressively from theteacher to the student, as cited by Jorba and Sanmarti in Pozo and Monereo, 1999. This proposal appears to overcome the former idea of formative assessment as being mainly the teacher´s responsibility.
This model seeks to educate students in the enhancement of their mental and learning processes and contributes to the development of their own personal learning system. Although many results ofinvestigations have enriched this proposal, like the ones about metacognition and learning (Werner and Kluve, 1987, and Noel, 1995), the theories of self-regulated learning (Zimmerman and Schunk, 1989), and self-assesment (Allal, 1988), among others, its foundations are found on the theory of learning activity proposed by Wertsch (1981) and Talizina (1998) and based on Vygostki, Leontiev and Luria worksthat draw basically from Galperin´s theory of formation of mental actions .
The activity theory states that the knowledge as a social experience cannot be internalized by students as a result of information transmission operated exclusively by the teacher; this fact underlines the necessity for the learner to relate with real objects and to interact with adults and classmates, as points outGabay (1991). At this point, it is highly desirable to establish mechanisms of control and regulation in the class by assigning activities that promote student involvement, active participation and social interaction as means to learn, along with the subject contents, the metacognitive skills to self-regulate learning.
Another relevant aspect that sustains this proposal comes from the theory of...