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For vehicles, see Dual-mode transit
Multimodal transport (also known as combined transport) is thetransportation of goods under a single contract, but performed with at least two different means of transport; the carrier is liable (in a legal sense) for the entire carriage, even though it is performed byseveral different modes of transport (by rail, sea and road, for example). The carrier does not have to possess all the means of transport, and in practice usually does not; the carriage is oftenperformed by sub-carriers (referred to in legal language as "actual carriers"). The carrier responsible for the entire carriage is referred to as a multimodal transport operator, or MTO.
Article 1.1. ofthe United Nations Multimodal Convention (which has not yet entered into force, however, and probably never will) defines multimodal transport as follows: "'International multimodal transport' meansthe carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport on the basis of a multimodal transport contract from a place in one country at which the goods are taken in charge by the multimodaltransport operator to a place designated for delivery situated in a different country".
Contents[hide] * 1 Overview * 2 Legal aspects * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading | Overview
In practice, freight forwarders have become important MTOs; they have moved away from their traditional role as agents for the sender, accepting a greater liability as carriers. Largesea carriers have also evolved into MTOs; they provide customers with so-called door-to-door service. The sea carrier offers transport from the sender's premises (usually located inland) to thereceiver's premises (also usually situated inland), rather than offering traditional tackle-to-tackle or pier-to-pier service. MTOs not in the possession of a sea vessel (even though the transport...