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This article is about Microsoft's implementation of DFS. For general discussion of the concept and other implementations, see Distributed file system.
Distributed File System (DFS) is a set of client and server services that allow an organization using Microsoft Windows servers to organize many distributed SMB file shares intoa distributed file system. DFS provides location transparency and redundancy to improve data availability in the face of failure or heavy load by allowing shares in multiple different locations to be logically grouped under one folder, or DFS root.
Microsoft's DFS is referred to interchangeably as 'DFS' and 'Dfs' by Microsoft and is unrelated to the DCE Distributed File System, which held the'DFS' trademark but was discontinued in 2005.
It is called "SMB/CIFS" in some contexts, such as the Open Source OpenSolaris kernel space project. It is also called "MS-DFS" or "MSDFS" in other contexts, e.g. in the Samba user space project.
* 1 Overview
* 2 DFS Namespaces
* 3 DFS Replication
* 4 History
* 5 References
* 6 External links* 7 See also
DFS has two major logical components. First, DFS namespaces provide an abstraction layer for SMB network file shares, allowing one logical network path to be served by multiple physical file servers. Second, DFS supports the replication of data between the servers, using File Replication Service (FRS) in server versions up to Server 2003, and using "DFS Replication"(DFSR) in Server 2003 R2, Server 2008, and later versions.
There is no requirement to use the two components of DFS together; it is perfectly possible to use the logical namespace component without using DFS file replication, and it is perfectly possible to use file replication between servers without combining them into one namespace.
A DFS root can only exist on a server version of Windows(from Windows NT 4.0 and up) and OpenSolaris (in kernel space) or a computer running Samba (in user space.) The Enterprise and Datacenter Editions of Windows Server can host multiple DFS roots on the same server. OpenSolaris intends on supporting multiple DFS roots in "a future project based on Active Directory (AD) domain-based DFS namespaces".
There are two ways of implementing DFS ona server:
* Standalone DFS namespace allow for a DFS root that exists only on the local computer, and thus does not use Active Directory. A Standalone DFS can only be accessed on the computer on which it is created. It doesn't offer any fault tolerance and cannot be linked to any other DFS. This is the only option available on Windows NT 4.0 Server systems. Standalone DFS roots are rarelyencountered because of their limited utility.
* Domain-based DFS namespace stores the DFS configuration within Active Directory, the DFS namespace root is accessible at \domainname\ or \fq.domain.name\. The namespace roots do not have to reside on domain controllers, they can reside on member servers, if domain controllers are not used as the namespace root servers, then multiple memberservers should be used to provide full fault tolerance.
Traditional file shares, associated with a single server, have SMB paths of the form \. Domain-based DFS file share paths are distinguished by using the domain name in place of the server name, in the form \. When a user accesses such a share, either directly or by mapping a drive, their computer will access one of theavailable servers associated with that share, following rules which can be configured by the network administrator. For example, the default behavior is that users will access the closest server to them; but this can be overridden to prefer a particular server.
If a server fails, the client can select a different server transparently to the user. One major caveat regarding this flexibility is that...