POLITICAL SYSTEM | Federation. |
HEAD OF STATE | President. Elected by a popular vote for a four-year term, eligible for a second term. |
HEAD OFGOVERNMENT | Premier (Prime Minister). |
SUBNATIONALENTITIES | Federation of 89 subjects:49 regions (oblasti), 21 autonomousrepublics (respubliki), 10autonomous areas (avtonomnye okrugy), 6 territories (kraye), 2federal cities (gorodi – St. Petersburg and Moscow), and 1autonomous region (avtonomnaya oblast'). |
GOVERNMENTSTRUCTURE | The legislature is the bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalnoye Sobraniye), which is made up by the Federation Council (Sovet Federatsii) and the State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma). |LEGISLATIVEPROCESS | Laws may be adopted by the legislative branch or by way of referendum. There are two types of law: federal law(federal’nyi zakon) and federal constitutional law (federal’nyikonstitutsionnyi zakon). Federal constitutional laws are superior to federal laws.The chambers of the Federal Assembly may also adopt decrees (postanovlenie) related to their specific jurisdiction. The FederalAssembly also confirms (by passing a federal law) other so-called normative acts, including statutes (polozhenie), code (kodeks), and fundamental principles (osnovi).The 1993 Constitution requires that laws be published before they can be applied or have any legal effect (art. 15(3)). Withregard to federal constitutional laws and federal laws, official publication must occur within seven days of thePresident’s signature. The first official publication takes place in the Russian Gazette (Rossiiskaya gazeta), the Collection of Legislation of the Russian Federation (Sobranie zakonodatelstva Rossiiskoi Federacii) or the Parliamentary Gazette (Parlamentskaya gazeta). Entry into force occursthroughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation ten days after official publication (unless adifferent procedure is set forth by the individual laws).Codes remain the primary source of law in Russia, though there has been an increasing willingness to recognize judicial interpretation of these codes.The President may issue edicts (ukazi) and regulations (rasporyazhenie), which constitute a form of subordinate legislation. Edicts represent the most important enactments, while regulationsrepresent “non-normative enactments addressed to individual administrative matters.” While there is some tension between edicts and the legislatively-enacted sources of law, under principles of separation of powers, the edicts are treated as equally authoritative within their own sphere as the enactments of the legislature. |
CODESNAME OF CODE ABBREVIATION | Grazhdanskii KodeksGK(CIVIL CODE)Grazhdanskii GPKProtsessuanl’nyiKodeks(CODE OF CIVILPROCEDURE)Ugolovnyi Kodeks UK(CRIMINAL CODE)Ugolovno- UPKProtsessual’nyiKodeks(CODE OF CRIMINALPROCEDURE)Nalogovyi Kodeks NK(TAX CODE)Biudzhetnyi KodeksBK(BUDGET CODE)Kodeks RF ob KOAPAdministrativnykhPravonarusheniiakh(CODE OFADMINISTRATIVEVIOLATIONS)Ugolovno- UIKIspolnitelnyi Kodeks(CORRECTIONAL CODE)Arbitrazhno- APKProtsessualnyiKodeks(CODE OF ARBITRATIONPROCEDURE)Tamozhennyi Kodeks TAK(CUSTOMS CODE)Trudovoi...