Introduction to Human Skeletal System:
Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very important because theymake the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations. If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would have taken place and the significance of human body; no more than a stone.
Components of Human Skeleton:
Human skeleton is composed of three main components; Bones, Associated cartilages and Joints.
Bone is a tough and rigidform of connective tissue. It is the weight bearing organ of human body and it is responsible for almost all strength of human skeleton. For more details visit: Basic anatomy article; “Bone“.
Cartilage is also a form of connective tissue but is not as tough and rigid as bone. The main difference in the cartilage and bone is the mineralization factor. Bones are highly mineralized withcalcium salts while cartilages are not. For more details visit: Basic anatomy article; “Cartilage and its types“.
Joints are important components of human skeleton because they make the human skeleton mobile. A joint occurs between “two or more bones”, “bone and cartilage” and “cartilage and cartilage”. For more details visit: “Joints”
Divisions of Human Skeleton:
Human skeleton canbe divided into two divisions.
Axial skeleton forms the axis of human body. It consists of Skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage.
* Skull: Skull is that part of human skeleton that forms the bony framework of the head. It consists of 22 different bones that are divided into two groups: bones of cranium and bones of face. For more details, visit:”"
* VertebralColumn: It is a flexible column of vertebrae, connecting the trunk of human body to the skull and appendages. It is composed of 33 vertebrae which are divided into 5 regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal. For more details, visit:”"
* Rib Cage: It is a bony cage enclosing vital human organs formed by the sternum and ribs. There are 12 pairs of ribs that are divided into three groups:True ribs, False ribs, and Floating ribs. For more details, visit:”".
It is the skeleton of appendages of human body. It consists of Shoulder girdle, Skeleton of upper limb, Pelvic girdle and Skeleton of lower limb.
* Shoulder Girdle: It attaches the upper limb to body trunk and is formed by two bones: clavicle and scapula.Clavicle is a modified longbone and is subcutaneous throughout its position. It is also known as the beauty bone. For more details on clavicle, visit:”"Scapula is a pear shaped flat bone that contains the glenoid fossa for the formation of shoulder joint. It possesses three important processes: Spine of scapula, Acromion process and Coracoid process. For more details, visit “”.
* Skeleton of Upper limb: The skeleton ofeach upper limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are: Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals (8), Metacarpals (5), Phalanges (14).Click on the name of any bone for more details.
* Pelvic Girdle: There are two pelvic girdles (one for each lower limb) but unlike the pectoral girdles, they are jointed with each other at symphysis pubis. Each pelvic girdle is a single bone in adults and is made up ofthree components: Ileum, Ischium and Pubis. For more details, visit “Hip Bone“.
* Skeleton of Lower limb: The skeleton of each lower limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are; Femur, Tibia, Patella, Tarsals (7), Metatarsals (5), Phalanges (14).Click on the name of any bone for more details.
Functions of human skeleton:
Human skeleton performs some important...
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