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Maria Paula Secaira

Final Exam Guide: Trimester II
Social Studies Final: March 7, 2012

Chapter 6: The Byzantine Empire
• How did the Byzantine Empire emerge?
The Byzantine Empire emerged as a continuation of the East side of the Roman Empire. Trade played an important role. Constantine named the capital Constantinople which was based on the Eastern Orthodox Church.
• What wasthe role of the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire?
Religion and government were closely connected in the East. The emperor was not only the most important person in the government but he or she was viewed as the living representative of God and Jesus Christ. Most people went to church regularly. The sacraments gave shape to every phase in life. Monasteries and convents helpedthe poor and the sick, supported by the wealthy ones. It influenced hierarchy, architecture, art, liturgy and prayer.


• What were some of the main features of the Byzantine Empire?
The Byzantine Empire had many main features. For example, it was easy to defend in case of attack. The Byzantine Empire was surrounded by three bodies of water (Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and theBlack Sea). It had many trade routes. Markets had ivory, silk, furs, perfumes and other luxury items. They had chariot races and the cities were very hygienic.

• What was the Christian schism? What were the major disagreements that led to the formal break between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church?
The Christian schism was the division within the Christian Church. Therewere three major disagreements that led to this break. One was Iconoclasm, when Byzantine Emperor Leo III banned the use of icons because people were worshipping themselves rather than God, Mary and Jesus. Then, Pope Gregory III excommunicated the emperor. The second one was The Crowning of a Holy Roman Emperor. This was when Empress Irene was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire but Pope Leo III didnot see her as a true leader and he needed protection of a strong leader to help him defend the church in the west. Leo decides to crown Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Empire and this decision outraged the Byzantines. The third conflict was when Celarius closed all the churches that worshiped the western rites and Leo IX sent Cardinal Humbert to Constantinople to excommunicate Celarious. This ledto the schism


• Compare Medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire


| |Medieval Europe |Byzantine Empire |
|Hygiene |Was very dirty, many sicknesses emerged |Were hygienic |
|Trade & Commerce |Woolencloth, glass, silk, foods, household|Silk, Ivory, furs, perfumes, and other |
| |items. |luxury items |
|Location |West of the Roman Empire |East of the Roman Empire |
|Religion|Roman Catholic Church |Eastern Orthodox Church |
|Hierarchy |Mainly peasants, strict, no social |Balanced, less strict |
| |mobility. | |






Chapter 28 and 29: TheRenaissance Begins and the Cradle of the Renaissance
● What is Renaissance?
Renaissance means rebirth, it is the Age when Classical Art was reborn.


● Compare and Contrast the Renaissance Art, Medieval Art and Classical Art according to their purpose, use of color and use of perspective.

| |Classical Art |Medieval Art...
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