everage) is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains carbonated water, a sweetener, and a flavoring agent. The sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, or a sugar substitute (in the case of diet drinks). A soft drink may also contain caffeine or fruit juice.
Products such as energy drinks, Kool-Aid, and pure juice are not considered to be soft drinks. Other beverages notconsidered to be soft drinks are hot chocolate, hot tea, coffee, milk, milkshakes, and schorle.
Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast to "hard drinks" (alcoholic beverages). Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic.
Widely sold soft drink flavors are cola,lemon-lime, root beer, orange, grape, vanilla, ginger ale, fruit punch, and sparkling lemonade.
Soft drinks may be served chilled or at room temperature. TheCarbonated drinks
Soft drinks displayed on supermarket shelves.
In late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters. In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method ofinfusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water which has 3.4 mg in the drink  when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water, (also known as soda water), is the major and defining component of most soft drinks.
Priestley found that water treated in this manner had a pleasant taste, and he offeredit to friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.
Another Englishman, John Mervin Nooth, improved Priestley's design and sold hisapparatus for commercial use in pharmacies. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid. Bergman's apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts. Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius started to add flavors (spices, juices and wine) to carbonated water in the late 18th century.Phosphate soda
A variant of soda in the United States called "phosphate soda" appeared in the late 1870s. It became one of the most popular soda fountain drinks from 1900 through the 1930s, with the lemon or orange phosphate being the most basic. The drink consists of 1 US fl oz (30 ml) fruit syrup, 1/2 teaspoon of phosphoric acid, and enough carbonated water and ice to fill a glass. This drink wascommonly served in pharmacies.
Soda fountain pioneers
Main article: Soda fountain
Artificial mineral waters, usually called "soda water," and the soda fountain made the biggest splash in the United States. Beginning in 1806, Yale chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman sold soda waters in New Haven, Connecticut. He used a Nooth apparatus to produce his waters. Businessmen in Philadelphiaand New York City also began selling soda water in the early 19th century. In the 1830s, John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains. Both men were successful and built large factories for fabricating fountains.
Soda fountains vs. bottled sodas
The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered a healthypractice. The American pharmacists selling mineral waters began to add herbs and chemicals to unflavored mineral water. They used birch bark (see birch beer), dandelion, sarsaparilla, fruit extracts, and other substances. Flavorings were also added to improve the taste. Pharmacies with soda fountains became a popular part of American culture. Many Americans frequented the soda fountain on a daily...
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