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Carbonated Soft Drinks
Formulation and Manufacture
Edited by David P. Steen and Philip R. Ashurst

Carbonated Soft Drinks: Formulation and Manufacture

Carbonated Soft Drinks: Formulation and Manufacture
Edited by

David P. Steen
and

Philip R. Ashurst

© 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Editorial Offices: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK Tel:+44 (0)1865 776868 Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300, USA Tel: +1 515 292 0140 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia Tel: +61 (0)3 8359 1011 The right of the Author to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rightsreserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd ISBN-13: 978-14051-3435-4 ISBN-10:1-4051-3435-6 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Carbonated soft drinks: formulation and manufacture/edited by David P. Steen and Philip R. Ashurst. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-3435-4 (alk.paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-3435-6 (alk.paper) 1. Soft drinks. 2. Carbonated beverages. I. Steen, David P. II. Ashurst, P. R. TP630.C38 2006 663 .62–dc22 2005035492A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library Set in 10/12 pt Times by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd., Chennai, India Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt, Ltd, Kundli The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementarychlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellfood.com

Contents

List of Contributors Preface 1 Introduction Bob Hargitt 1.1 1.2 1.3 Early history The growth of carbonates – production Technologicaldevelopment 1.3.1 Carbon dioxide 1.3.2 Sweeteners 1.3.3 Flavours and colours 1.3.4 Packaging 1.4 Recent technological development 1.5 The growth of carbonates – consumption 1.6 Changing public perception and future challenges Acknowledgements Bibliography 2 Water treatment Walter Tatlock 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 Introduction Water quality Town mains waterBoreholes How to achieve the desired water quality Sand filtration Coagulation Alkalinity reduction Membrane filtration Chlorination and carbon filtration Iron removal Nitrate removal Polishing filters Ultraviolet systems Ozone technology

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CONTENTS

2.16 De-aeration 2.17 Factory water distributionsystems 2.18 Factory water systems References 3 Ingredients and formulation of carbonated soft drinks Barry Taylor 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Introduction Factors influencing development of the industry The move towards standardisation The constituents of a soft drink Water 3.5.1 Requirements 3.5.2 Quality of fresh water 3.5.3 Water hardness 3.5.4 Water treatment 3.5.5 Water impurities and their effect 3.5.5.1Suspended particles 3.5.5.2 Organic matter 3.5.5.3 High alkalinity 3.5.5.4 Nitrates Saccharides and high-intensity sweeteners 3.6.1 Bulk sweeteners 3.6.2 Intense sweeteners Carbon dioxide Acidulants 3.8.1 Citric acid 3.8.2 Tartaric acid 3.8.3 Phosphoric acid 3.8.4 Lactic acid 3.8.5 Acetic acid 3.8.6 Malic acid 3.8.7 Fumaric acid 3.8.8 Ascorbic acid Flavourings 3.9.1 Flavourings and legislation...
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