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INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL TO ACCOMPANY

OPERATINGSYSTEM CONCEPTS
SEVENTH EDITION

ABRAHAM SILBERSCHATZ Yale University PETER BAER GALVIN Corporate Technologies GREG GAGNE Westminster College

Preface
This volume is an instructor’s manual for the Seventh Edition of OperatingSystem Concepts, by Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, and Greg Gagne. It consists of answers to the exercises inthe parent text. Although we have tried to produce an instructor’s manual that will aid all of the users of our book as much as possible, there can always be improvements (improved answers, additional questions, sample test questions, programming projects, alternative orders of presentation of the material, additional references, and so on). We invite you to help us in improving this manual. If youhave better solutions to the exercises or other items which would be of use with Operating-System Concepts, we invite you to send them to us for consideration in later editions of this manual. All contributions will, of course, be properly credited to their contributor. Internet electronic mail should be addressed to os-book@cs.yale.edu. Physical mail may be sent to Avi Silberschatz, Departmentnof Computer Science, Yale University 51 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. A. S. P. B. G G. G.

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Contents
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Introduction . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Operating-System Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 23 CPU Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Process Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Deadlocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 55 Virtual Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 File-Systems Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 File-Systems Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Mass Storage Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 91 I/O Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Network Structures . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Distributed Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Distributed-File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Multimedia Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Embedded Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 The Linux System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Influential Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

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CHAPTER

1

Introduction
Chapter 1...
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