Soy, phytoestrogens and their impact on reproductive health

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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology xxx (2012) xxx–xxx

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Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/mce

Review

Soy, phytoestrogens and their impact on reproductive health
Christopher Robin Cederroth 1, Céline Zimmermann 1, Serge Nef ⇑
Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University ofGeneva Medical School, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
There is growing interest in the potential health threats posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the reproductive system. Soybean is the most important dietary source of isoflavones, an important class of phytoestrogen. While consumption of soy food or phytoestrogen supplements has beenfrequently associated with beneficial health effects, the potentially adverse effects on development, fertility, and the reproductive and endocrine systems are likely underappreciated. Here we review the available epidemiological, clinical and animal data on the effects of soy and phytoestrogens on the development and function of the male and female reproductive system, and weigh the evidence as to theirdetrimental impact. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Soy Phytoestrogens Isoflavones Endocrine disruptor Reproduction Fertility

Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Soy and phytoestrogens as potential sources of endocrine-disrupting chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Soybean composition and isoflavone biosynthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soy consumption, metabolism and absorption of isoflavones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mechanisms of action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soy, phytoestrogens and the reproductive system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 5.1. Soy-based infant formula: A source for concern? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. Soy, phytoestrogens and female fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5.3. Soy, phytoestrogens and male reproductive function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importance of assessing the combined effects of phytoestrogens and other EDCs on the reproductive system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importance of identifying the bioactiveconstituents of soy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General conclusions and research need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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