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ACI Education Bulletin E4-03

Prepared under the direction and supervision of ACI Committee E-701 Materials for Concrete Construction
David M. Suchorski Chair Leonard W. Bell Richard P. Bohan David A. Burg Darrell F. Elliot James Ernzen J. Pablo Garcia Ramon F. Gutierrez Morris Skip Huffman Herb Johns

James A. Farny Secretary Tarek S. Khan Paul D. KraussColin L. Lobo Stella L. Marusin Patrick L. McDowell Gerald R. Murphy Charles K. Nmai Anthony C. Powers Kenneth B. Rear* Raymundo Rivera-Villarreal Jere H. Rose Paul J. Tikalsky Mark E. Vincent Christopher H. Wright Kari L. Yuers Robert C. Zellers

Chair of document subcommittee.

This document discusses commonly used chemical admixtures for concrete and describes the basic use of theseadmixtures. It is targeted at those in the concrete industry not involved in determining the specific mixture proportions of concrete or in measuring the properties of the concrete. Students, craftsmen, inspectors, and contractors may find this a valuable introduction to a complex topic. The document is not intended to be a stateof-the-art report, user’s guide, or a technical discussion of past andpresent research findings. More detailed information is available in ACI Committee Report 212.3R, “Chemical Admixtures for Concrete” and 212.4R, “Guide for the Use of High-Range Water-Reducing Admixtures (Superplasticizers) in Concrete.”

4.2—Type A, water-reducing admixtures 4.3—Type B, retarding, and Type D, water-reducing and retarding admixtures 4.4—Type C, accelerating, and Type E,water-reducing and accelerating admixtures 4.5—High-range water-reducing admixtures 4.6—Mid-range water-reducing admixtures Chapter 5—Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures, p. E4-9 Chapter 6—Shrinkage-reducing admixtures, p. E4-9 Chapter 7—Admixtures for controlling alkali-silica reactivity, p. E4-9 Chapter 8—Admixtures for underwater concreting, p. E4-9 Chapter 9—Effectiveness of admixtures, p. E4-9

CONTENTSChapter 1—Introduction, p. E4-2 1.1—History 1.2—Definitions Chapter 2—Overview, p. E4-2 2.1—Function 2.2—Standards Chapter 3—Air-entraining admixtures, p. E4-3 3.1—History 3.2—Mechanism 3.3—Use of air-entraining admixtures Chapter 4—Water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, p. E4-5 4.1—Types and composition The Institute is not responsible for the statements or opinions expressed in itspublications. Institute publications are not able to, nor intended to, supplant individual training, responsibility, or judgement of the user, or the supplier, of the information presented.

Chapter 10—Admixture dispensers, p. E4-10 10.1—Industry requirements and dispensing methods 10.2—Liquid admixture dispensing methods 10.3—Accuracy requirements 10.4—Application considerations andcompatibility 10.5—Dispensers for high-range water-reducing admixtures 10.6—Dispenser maintenance
ACI Education Bulletin E4-03. Supersedes E4-96. Copyright © 2003, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, orrecording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.



Chapter 11—Conclusion, p. E4-11 Chapter 12—List of relevant ASTM standards, p. E4-11 Chapter 13—Glossary, p. E4-12 CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION 1.1—History Admixtures have long been recognized asimportant components of concrete used to improve its performance. The original use of admixtures in cementitious mixtures is not well documented. It is known that cement mixed with organic matter was applied as a surface coat for water resistance or tinting purposes. It would be a logical step to use such materials, which imparted desired qualities to the surface, as integral parts of the mixture....
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