ARIAS CARBALLO JOSE ROMAN
TEACHER: JAIME CASTILLO VERA
UNIVERSIDAD DE VALLADOLID YUCATAN
JANUARY 19TH 2011
Here I am to tell you about the history of the syntax and how does it got its development through the time, syntax comes from the Latin syn that means “together” and taxis that means“arrangement” also the term syntax is used to denote the rules that govern the sentence structure, Panini was a precursor of the syntax, his work was one of the closest to the modern syntactic theory but this was starting to be known as traditional grammar and Dionysius thrax was beginning his work with that, also there are another linguists as Noam Chomsky when he said that the syntax is a branch of thebiology, another linguist is joseph Greenberg that consider grammar as a taxonomical device. There is a common concept that you hear about in the quotidian life and is the “grammar “, there are some facts that says how grammar is an important tool in languages but there is a big difference between to know a language and to know the grammar of a language all of this began in Greece, indeed when wewant to learn a language we find the grammar the most difficult but even without grammar knowledge, the lexicon and the pronunciation (phonetic) we would not know anything, as I say in Greece was the place where Panini and Dionysius thrax made their works, Panini was an Indian and the first to give the grammar theories but the first grammar known was from Dionysius thrax, also oliscolo made hisapparition and he wrote the first syntax and their principles, platon divided the sentence as two parts in noun and verb but his work wasn’t as famous as Dionysius because he said that there are eight kind of words, seeing that the grammar hadn’t develop anymore, appeared two grammarians they weren’t thinkers but they had the most completely grammar than Greeks and they were donato and priciano, thegrammar port royal was the most complete grammar in all theories, the grammar suffered a long process to get the perfection until the 20th century
Then the grammar was losing importance and being substituted by the linguistic, exist a concept that has been indispensible of the languages studies and is the concept of “word” a word can be studied in different ways but the most common is the study ofits form and that linguistic study is called “morphology” and in the same linguistic study exist the syntax that is the way you combine the words and there is one third study, that studies the sense or meaning of the words and that study is the semantic but we are going to focus in the morphology.
The morphology says that the words can not be separated in independent elements because they wouldhaven’t meaning, the words they can be separated in phonemes, one of the feature that morphemes has are the affixes these are at the end of a word or at the beginning, these affixes are divided in three in prefixes that they’re going at the beginning of the root and suffixes that they’re going next to the root and the infixes that are in the middle of the root the prefixes and the suffixes must beattached of other or more morphemes simply they cannot stand alone while other morphemes can stand alone, when a morpheme cannot stand alone is called “bound” but if it can it is called “free” all affixes are bound the must to be with a “free base, a word can contain these three affixes like in Spanish imposiblemente it has “in” as prefix the root is “possible” and “mente” as suffix also inmorphology exist the derivative and inflexives morphemes, as the plurals that the real meaning is been kept are called inflexives like “cat” and “cats” and when the meaning changed are called derivative like “farm” and “farmer” the real meaning has changed, also in the morphemes exist the allophones and the allomorphs the first one is about when a word has a similar sound with other word instead...