- part of Europe’s “Age of Genius”
-witchcraft craze killed thousands
- magic and science the same in practice (ie. Alchemy and the mysterious mutability of matter)
- used purging and bleeding to treat illnesses
- faith healers, midwives, andbarber surgeons primarily provide medical care
- “natural law”- humans can discover what is fair through reason
- “natural rights”- inherent in human beings; cannot be usurped bygovernment
- Thomas Hobbes viewed society as a closed energy system: society dissipates into anarchy over time
- Church prohibited dissection, so scientists centered their learningaround reading ancient texts rather than doing anatomical studies
- Science accepted by the Church was based on “Ancient Greats” :
- theory of motion involved a “mover” thatwas accepted by the church because it coincided with the teachings of the Bible. For instance, angels could be considered movers.
Ptolemy- Greek astronomer
- theorized the universe made ofperfect spheres and perfect orbits
Galen- Greek physician
- thought the human body contained 4 humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile which were associated with human temperament. (ie.Blood-dominated humans were associated with being sanguine.)
- Scientists grew skeptical and challenged Church authority because of a growing interest in how nature works, in celestial bodies toimprove navigation for exploration, and in forming a more accurate calendar.
- Scholasticism- dominated investigations of natural philosophy
- Scientists did not contemplate the notionthat universal laws could be expressed as mathematical equations
- Epistemology- how do I know what I know?
- Emphasis on logic and reason
- Universities promote discourse and...