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  • Publicado : 10 de marzo de 2012
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1. Fabrics made from Natural Fibers

A. Wool. Obtained from hundreds of different breeds of sheep specially bred for quality of their fleece and raised in temperate climates. The fibers havethree-dimensional crimp.
The color can range from black to brown tan or most often ivory. Fibers range from very fine to very coarse. Length depends on breed of animals but it goes to 1.5” to 15”. Has low luster due to coarseness and crimp.

B. Cotton. Most important natural fiber for use in environmental textiles. It is a cellulosic fiber derivedfrom seed hairs of the cotton plant. The natural color range is cream-white, can be grown red, yellow, green, gray with hybrid genetically modified seeds. Has low luster. Shorter fibers are used for lesser quality fabrics, are rougher in appearance and less expensive. Longer fibers allow for increased cohesiveness and smoother refined fabrics. Has a poor elastic recovery and poor resiliency.Moderate strength.

C. Silk. Unique only natural filament fiber has an indefinite length. Sericulture is the growing and harvesting production of the moth for silk. Fibers are thing, smooth, long continuous filament, cream colored, with high luster. Strong fiber light weighted self extinguishing, highly susceptible to damage by sunlight.D. Linen. Comes from the flax plant. Fibers are vast. Thin linen composition goes from 5” to 20”, the short fibers are called tow. Flax fibers tend to crock and fairly uniform, color goes from light ivory to dark tan or gray. The luster improves with cleaning.

E. Jute. It’s also called burlap, color yellowish brown to gray colors. Silky luster,relatively weak fiber used mostly in wall coverings. Good resistance to bacteria and insects. Cheap, used to be backing for carpets, wall covering and mats. Less uniform than flax, high luster and has a strong natural odor. Poor flexibility.

2. Fabrics made from Man-made fibers

A. Rayon. Composed of pure cellulose cotton linter.Absorbs moisture and is a strong fiber of low cost. Very versatile fiber and has the same comfort properties as other natural fibers and can imitate the feel and texture of silk, wool, cotton and linen. The fibers are easily dyed in a wide range of colors. Rayon fabrics are soft, smooth, cool, comfortable, and highly absorbent. The durability and appearance retention of regular rayon are low,especially when wet; also rayon has the lowest elastic recovery of any fiber.

B. Acetate. Translucent fibers, delustratns may be added to deflect light, can be filament or cut to staple lengths. Low in strength and moisture absorbency. Low resiliency, especially in warm humid conditions.

C. Polyester. Smooth uniformfiber, translucent unless pigment is added to the spinning solution. Excellent elasticity and recovery. Tightly woven so water won’t penetrate. Excellent dimensional stability, exceptional resiliency, low absorbency, elastic recovery and resists abrasion.

D. Acrylic. Hypoallergenic fiber with low strength but acceptable, crimp is often added. It can be lustrous ordelustered and most often used in staple form. Good resiliency, static electricity, it has loft so it can be combined with polyester and nylon.

E. Modacrylic. Similar to acrylic bur withstand higher temperatures and do not burn. Resistance to fire is the outstanding property and makes the fiber desirable for draperies, blankets… Mostly used in staple form. Very good...
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